Searching & Referencing for Academic Papers

Searching & Referencing for Academic Papers

805–008 Searching and Referencing | 2 credit (30 hour) online audiovisual conferencing course.

Course description: Discovering and reading literature reviews, opinion papers and research articles; composing a literature review to support a position; using scholarly writing techniques and citations following APA style.

How to Improve your Scholarly Writing – Searching and Referencing for Literature Reviews and Research Articles 

Course lecturer's resources and examples

Previously taught courses of relevance

Featured Webinar | How to develop a systematic review

Webinar | How to conduct a systematic review | 1:20:46


TOPIC 1

How to distinguish APA and other academic formatting styles

APA Manual 7th | Source: American Psychological Association (2020)

Generally, academic writing adheres to a given style guide or 'school of style'. Common examples include APA (American Psychological Association), CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) and MLA (Modern Language Association).

Example: MLA Style | My 1999 freshman paper | Toponymy of Hawaii

Many publishers of books and journals suggest the Harvard Citation Style (i.e. author-date referencing) although there is actually no official guideline or institutional connection. However, the Harvard University Press does have its own code of formatting author-date citations and reference lists.

Note that publishers of international journals often have unique citation and referencing formats.

While it is important to recognize a variety of formatting styles in academic writing and publishing, our course will focus on undergraduate students gaining proficiency in APA style.


TOPIC 2

How to develop an APA reference list – a brief Introduction

Note: a "reference list" is generally the "works cited" in your paper, while a "bibliography" might include a comprehensive list of literature relevant to your research or thesis.

APA reference example for a journal article | Source: American Psychological Association (2020)

Some examples of sources which require referencing

  • Books
  • Book chapters
  • Journal articles
  • Conference papers
  • Conference presentations
  • Websites and webpages

Worksheets for today's lesson

Due to website formatting limitations, the required APA 1/2 inch hanging indent is not shown in the examples below.

APA references | Books and book chapters

Winichakul, T. (1997). Siam mapped: A history of the geo-body of a nation. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Martin, S. A., & Blundell, D. (2017). Cultural continuum among the Bunun of Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu), southern Taiwan. In H. Chang & A. Mona (Eds.), Religion, law and state: Cultural re-invigoration in the new age (pp. 215-246). Taipei, Taiwan: Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines.

APA reference entries for books | 4:26

APA references | Journals and other periodicals

Martin, S. A. (2011). Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu)–The last frontier of the Taiwan aborigines during the Japanese occupation on Taiwan: Ethnographic narratives of a Bunun elder. The International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies (IJAPS), 7(1) 123–142.

Martin, S. A., & Ritchie, R. J. (2020). Sourcing Thai geography literature for ASEAN and international education. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography41(1) 61–85.

APA reference entries for periodicals | 2:44

APA references | Conferences papers and presentations

Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2012). Towards a surf resource sustainability index: A global model for surf site conservation and Thailand case studyProceedings of the 18th Asia Pacific Tourism Association Annual Conference (APTA) Hospitality & Tourism Education: New Tourism & New Waves (pp. 745–760). Taipei, ROC, June 26–29. Busan, Korea: School of International Tourism, Dong-A University.

Martin, S. A., & Ritchie, R. (2018). Towards an ASEAN community: A scoping study and case for teaching the geography of Thailand in the English languageProceedings of the PSU Phuket International Conference 50th Anniversary Celebration: Creativity and Innovations for Global Development (p. 54). Prince of Songkla University, Phuket, Thailand, March 11–12.


TOPIC 3

How to make APA in-text citations for sentences

APA in-text citation examples | Source: American Psychological Association (2020)

In-text references (or in-text citations) provide a source (author and year of publication) for each piece of information used in your academic writing. In-text citations are commonly placed either at the beginning or end of a sentence or paragraph to identify where information actually came from and are important in order to avoid plagiarism.

Plagiarism is the use of the published work of another person without acknowledgement and is easily avoidable by using an in-text citation to indicate who the original author/s is/are.

Worksheets for today's lesson

APA format | In-text citations, quotations, paraphrases to avoid plagiarism | 3:20


TOPIC 4

How to make an annotated bibliography

Annotated bibliography example in APA style

According to the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL, 2020), “Depending on the purpose of your bibliography, some annotations may summarize, some may assess or evaluate a source, and some may reflect on the source’s possible uses for the project at hand.”

Worksheets for today's lesson

APA format | Annotated bibliography and helpful advice | 6:10


TOPIC 5

How to organize research files and develop a database

Literature Review File Organization Concept


TOPIC 6

How to develop a literature review I Midterm project guidelines

Topic selection and outline

  • Write a comprehensive literature review based on the topics and annotated bibliographies as developed, discussed and approved during our previous lessons.
  • The literature review should follow the APA style for in-text citations and references.

The literature review consists of five parts

  1. A brief introduction.
  2. Three to five relevant subtopics of at least two paragraphs each.
  3. Brief discussion or conclusion highlighting key points of interest and/or knowledge gaps (if any).
  4. Brief suggestions for future research.
  5. A reference list with at least 15 sources representing journals, books, websites, etc.

Formatting

  • Spacing: 1.5.
  • Font: Times New Roman 12pt.
  • Length: 1,500 to 2,000 words.
  • Referencing: APA style (American Psychological Association)

TOPIC 7

How to use Google Scholar for searching and referencing

Assignment

  • Select a topic of your choice.
  • Search Google Scholar to locate 3 to 5 relevant international journal articles.
  • Conduct searches for (1) the topic and (2) relevant scholars in the field.
  • In APA format, make reference list in MS Word and email it to the instructor.

TOPIC 8

How to use ResearchGate for searching and referencing

Assignment

  • Join ResearchGate.
  • Select a topic relevant to your final paper (systematic review).
  • Search ResearchGate for relevant scholars in the field.
  • Contact at least two researchers about their research.

TOPIC 9

How to use YouTube for searching and referencing

Video, documentary film and scholarly presentations: the case of YouTube in searching and referencing online educational films and videos

With digital transformations in education, online films and videos bring to light more than just content, we are exposed to – and adapt to – the use of technology in teaching and learning. For example, searching and referencing videos on YouTube suggest an awareness of search strategies one might employ while identifying diverse genres of videos and experts in a given field or topic area.

In the case of searching and referencing Greece and Asia Minor videos – free and available on YouTube – the following genres come to light and are explored.

  • Academic lectures and presentations
  • Mainstream documentary films and series
  • Diverse videos of interest
  • Animated video presentations
  • Travel videos and vlogs

Searching and Referencing | Greece and Asia Minor Documentary Film Page

Assignment

  • Select a topic (it can be relevant to your final paper).
  • Search on YouTube for related videos.
  • Locate five relevant videos representing each of the genres as discussed in class, including (1) academic lectures and presentations, (2) mainstream documentary films and series, (3) diverse videos of interest, (4) animated video presentations, and (5) travel videos and vlogs.
  • Make a reference for each video which includes an active URL.

How to cite a video in APA | 1:45


TOPIC 10

How to use Wikipedia for searching and referencing | Do's and Dont's

In this lesson, we explore the power of Wikipedia in research and learn how to track down appropriate and citable references to use in our work.

  • Why we don't cite Wikipedia and how to use it as a resource

Lesson and worksheet forthcoming.


TOPIC 11

How to access academic journals and databases at the university

Many academic journals and databases require a subscription or fee to view or download articles. For students and researchers at PSU Phuket, our university has purchased subscriptions to a variety of journals and databases.

You may need to login on campus or through the Prince of Songkla University Phuket Campus Library in order to gain access. This will allow journals and databases to automatically verify the PSU IP address.

Shortist of online databases


TOPIC 12

How to conduct a systematic review | Final project

Building a foundation for long-term success in research and writing in the social sciences

Webinar | How to conduct a systematic review | 1:20:46

Presentation slides | How to conduct a systematic review

Systematic Literature Review Infographic

Systematic review of surf tourism research | Journal of Sport and Tourism

Systematic reviews of surf tourism research

Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2012). The genesis of a new body of sport tourism literature: A systematic review of surf tourism research (1997-2011). Journal of Sport and Tourism, 17(4) 257–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2013.766528

Martin, S. A. (2022). From shades of grey to Web of Science: A systematic review of surf tourism research in international journals (2011-2020). Journal of Sport & Tourism, 26(2) 125–146. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2022.2037453

Thai Geography academic literature review and research

Academic review of Thai geography literature

Martin, S. A., & Ritchie, R. J. (2020). Sourcing Thai geography literature for ASEAN and international education. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography41(1) 61–85.


How to publish papers in international journals

Coordinator : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Raymond J. Ritchie

For the scholar who studies or works in a university, doing scholarly research and publishing the findings in the form of articles in peer-reviewed international journals are some of the most important academic activities. It is important to learn how to do it yourself so you can set-up your own career.

This workshop includes a number of advanced topics regarding how to publish a paper in international journals. It is very good opportunity for learning from the experience and techniques of an experienced publisher of papers. Emphasis is on practical information on how to do it, and what Dr. Ritchie has leant from experience, that is, what works and what does not.

Searching and Referencing | Prof Dr Steven A Martin | Teaching and Learning Resources | Google Search

Forthcoming sections for teaching and learning

3 parts of this course

  1. Searching and sources
  2. Citation and referencing
  3. Annotations and literature reviews

2 required projects (midterm and final)

  1. Literature review
  2. Systematic review

Other

  • How to include foreign language references
Searching and Referencing | Prof Dr Steven A Martin | Teaching and Learning Resources
Website Index

Website Index

SAM Website Index

Asst Professor Dr Steven A Martin

Assistant Professor of Asian Studies in Sociology and Anthropology

Greece & the Rise of the Polis

Greece & the Rise of the Polis

GREEK CIVILIZATION AND THE RISE OF THE POLIS

I am currently developing a series of topics and presentations on early Greek civilization and the rise of the polis for students enrolled in our European Studies program.

In Greek, a polis is generally understood as meaning ‘city-state’, ‘citizens’, or ‘community’. In contemporary intellectual circles, the term may represent an ancient Athenian devotion to freedom of choice, collective citizenship, and democratic principles.

The Acropolis, 2019 | Click to see more photos

Rise of the Polis

The rise of the polis personifies the dawn of the world’s first-ever democracy, a concept manifest in English terms, such as ‘policy’, ‘political’, and ‘police’, as well as globally-recognized place names, such as Indianapolis, Naples, and Tripoli.

Join me as I develop this web page and explore the legacy of Athenian democracy and  philosophy – a series of historical events and places which profoundly shaped the world we live in today.

This page is intended to support my university presentation on ancient Greek civilization. Development of this page is ongoing, with short stories, photo albums and videos forthcoming. 

Geography of Greece and the Aegean Sea

Five archaeological sites

Based on five key archaeological sites we visited in July, 2019, I hope you will enjoy the images and videos posted below.

  • The Acropolis of Athens
  • Island of Aegina and Temple of Aphaia
  • Cape Sounio and Temple of Poseidon
  • Oracle of Delphi and Temple of Apollo
  • Mycenae Archaeological Site and Mycenaean Civilization

Comments and suggestions are welcome.

Click on photos to enlarge.

THE ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS

In our short video, filmed and photographed during a single afternoon at the Acropolis of Athens, we visited The Temple of Athena Nike, The Propylaea, The Parthenon, The Erechtheion, Temple of Olympia Zeus, The Theatre of Dionysus, and the new world-class Acropolis Museum, Bookstore, and Café for lunch.

We sure wish we had more time at the Acropolis, but with our limited budget, and just four days in Greece, we were runnin’ and gunnin’.

Acropolis of Athens, Greece

Parthenon, Acropolis | On site interpretation sign

Bookstore at the new Acropolis Archaeology Museum

ISLAND OF AEGINA AND THE TEMPLE OF APHAIA

Island of Aegina and the Temple of Aphaia

Temple of Aphaia | Island of Aegina | c. 500 BCE

Fisherman | Near the island of Aegina | Saronic Gulf

CAPE SOUNION AND THE TEMPLE OF POSEIDON

Sanctuary of Poseidon | Cape Sounion | 444 BCE

Sanctuary of Poseidon | On site interpretation sign

Sunset at Cape Sounion | Southernmost tip of the Attic peninsula

THE ORACLE AT DELPHI AND THE TEMPLE OF APOLLO

The Temple of Apollo at Delphi | Mount Parnassus, Central Greece

On site interpretation sign | Temple of Apollo | Delphi

Philosopher of Delphi | c. 270 BCE | Delphi Archaeological Museum

THE MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION | LATE BRONZE AGE

The Mycenae archaeological site | Mykines, Argolis, Peloponnese | 1600–1100 BCE

Mycenaean Woman | Fresco wall painting | c. 1350 BCE | Mycenae Archaeological Museum | Mykines

Mask of Agamemnon | 1500 BCE | Mycenae Archaeological Museum | Mykines


ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS

210,000-year-old Homo sapien skull bone discovered in Greece | Apidima Cave, Mani Peninsula, Peloponnese | Nature Science Journal

July 10, 2019 | Nature | International Journal of Science | “Apidima Cave fossils provide earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in Eurasia

Credit | Lead author | Paleoanthropologist, Katerina Harvati | Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Source | Katerina Harvati | University of Tübingen


Greece and Asia Minor documentary film page

Featuring 30 documentary films of interest on ancient Greece, Turkey, and the civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean.

Click to Greece and Asia Minor Documentary Film Page


Thank you for visiting my Greece Learning Adventure page.

I hope you enjoy the photos, videos, and the information in the links provided. If you feel motivated to learn more about Greece or other Learning Adventures, or would like to arrange for me to give a public talk, please let me know – I’d love to hear from you.

–Steven Martin

Jantanee Martin | Olives trees at the Acropolis

In search of the Polis | Parthenon | Athens, Greece


Acknowledgment | Prof. Donald Kagan | Yale Lectures

My research has been greatly influenced by the works of Prof. Donald Kagan (1932-2021), having reviewed his books and lectures prior to visiting archaeological sites in Greece.

Donald Kagan | Introduction to Ancient Greek History | Recorded in Fall 2007

Mekong Delta Exploratory Research

Mekong Delta Exploratory Research

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON VIETNAM'S MEKONG DELTA

Over the past 10 years living and teaching in Thailand, one of my favorite past times is exploring the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS).

The GMS an intriguing mix of countries, brimming with diverse peoples and historical geographies, offering countless and affordable adventures.

Among my most memorable travels are those taken in 2014 and 2015 to the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam.

Friendly faces on the Mekong Delta | Click to Southeast Asian Civilization

Photos on this page link to the Southeast Asian Civilization course.

Mekong Delta, Vietnam | Click to enlarge

Agriculture and Fisheries

Mekong Delta is an expansive floodplain of 40,000 sq. km. populated by over 17 million people across 13 provinces. It is responsible for 60% of Viet Nam’s rice production (90% of this is exported) and 60% of the country’s fruit.

There is a large export industry of fish, and 65% of fishery production is sent to the USA. While there is a considerable fishing fleet working the offshore areas around the Delta, the majority of production is based in aquaculture. For the most part, local peoples eat the small fish and sell the big fish.

Mekong Delta food environment

Other important commodities include coconut products and honey. A burgeoning tourism industry is evident in nearly all eras in the Delta, ranging from individuals to small groups to mass tourism.

Exploratory research on the Mekong Delta

Topography and Land Reclamation

Once reaching Viet Nam, the Mekong splits into two main branches at the Delta. The north branch divides into four distributaries and the south branch into three distributaries.

The Delta consists of hundreds of islands formed over millennia of sedimentary deposits; an untold number of waterways create an exotic and dangerous maze of jungles and swamps.

Land reclamation is evident throughout the Delta, with gravel and dirt-laden barges destined for low-lying properties and canal banks. Farmers also dredge local canals every few years and use the silt to reinforce the sides. Busy barge-based cranes used for large-scale dredging of the main river branches are nearly always in view on the horizon.

The ancient network of rural mangrove-lined canals invite visitors to reflect on the country's enigmatic past, while the new palm-lined highway to Saigon represents the fast lane the country is taking to its future at the heart of the economically vibrant and socially diverse ASEAN community.

Crane loading a barge with gravel in the Delta

Vietnamese barge transporting soil for land reclamation on the Mekong Delta

Faith and Religion

There is a heritage of Spanish, Portuguese, French, and to some degree, American missionary influence, and this is evident in Vietnamese language, culture, architecture and religion. For example, Catholic and other denominational Christian churches speckle the banks of the Delta and constitute as much as 15% of the religious base.

However, 60% of the Delta population follows a type of ancestor worship and this may be attributed to an age-old relationship with Chinese culture.

Faith and religion on the Delta

The Delta Road

The government opened up the Mekong in recent years, completing the ‘Delta Road’, a collaborative effort with the Japanese, and this was engineered in part to keep the Delta’s produce fresh and undamaged, particularly rice, fruit and seafood, when they are transported to Saigon overland.

These new transport networks are key as the traditional floating markets are becoming impractical. Thus, there is an ongoing shift from a water-based trade economy to a land-based export economy.

Historically, there were much smaller human populations in the Delta due to the dangers associated with snake and crocodile-infested swamps.

Traditional Delta transport

The "Delta Road" represents an ongoing shift from a water-based trade economy to a land-based export economy

Environment

Winter is the dry season on the Delta and the rainy period is normally during the summer, although the Delta is indeed south of the typhoon belt which impacts central Viet Nam and the Red River area further north.

The water level is higher during the rainy season, and this ‘wet time’ is utilized for fishing, while the ‘dry time’ is best for vegetables and potatoes. Climate change is evident and local farmers explain that nowadays the seasons are not so distinct.

The biodiversity of the region is still wide-open to exploration and inquiry, with thousands of new species discovered in recent years. However, there is an unfortunate war-torn legacy of ‘agent orange’, the chemical defoliant dropped by American forces upstream of the Delta, and as many as 2 million people are affected by it today.

One of the many canals on the Mekong Delta

The watery world of the Mekong delta, Vietnam

Settlement

The Delta was once part of the Funan (68-550 AD) and Chenla (550-760 AD) empires with ties to early Chinese trade networks, and later saw Champa settlements (associated with central Vietnam) and Khmer settlements (associated with Cambodia). Some Khmer still live in the west of the delta region near Cambodia.

According to my Delta guide, the Khmer never actually left the region; rather they mixed and integrated with the North Vietnamese (i.e., the ‘Kinh’ ethnic group) who migrated to the Delta over time.

The feelings of the North Vietnamese about their Delta settlement are represented in the local music which carries sad tones and lyrics, voicing their homesick emotions.

There was also a significant era of assimilation 300 years ago, when Chinese, Vietnamese and Khmer cultures mixed together.

Personal interview with Sombo Manara | Champa Kingdom

Interview with Prof. Dr. Sombo Manara, a leading expert in Khmer ancient history. The interview took place at the Po Nagar Temple in Nha Trang, Vietnam, a 7th - 12th century Hindu temple and vestige of the once powerful Champa Kingdom.

Cham is an Austronesian language, part of a super-family of languages generally associated with the seafaring peoples of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Visit Chasing Jade: Archaeology and the Batanes Islands Cultural Atlas to learn more about Austronesian prehistory.

Life and settlement on the Mekong Delta

Cultural Stereotypes

Vietnam is polarized by Hanoi in the north and Ho Chi Minh City in the south, two sprawling urban and cultural centers with unique cultural attributes.

Stereotypically, the north and central populations distinguish themselves as thinking, planning, hard-working, and saving for the future.

In contrast, and as my Delta guide, Nguyễn Minh Phương, himself from the central region, put it, "The people of the Delta live for today, and are sometimes typecast by their northern counterparts as being reliant on the good weather, having strong physical features, and a sweet palate."

Daily life on the Delta

Life on the Delta Road

Next generation on the Delta

Water color painting for sale on the Delta

Travelers, Traders and Invaders

The Mekong Delta is a beautiful place to visit, an exotic tropical landscape steeped in ancient tradition with modern geographical significance. At 4,350 km, the Mekong is the world’s 12th-longest river, the lifeblood of mainland Southeast Asia – a trans-boundary network known as the ‘Greater Mekong Subregion’ (GMS).

The Mekong derives its name from the Sanskirt word ‘ganga’ after the Ganges River in India, and the toponym evolved in Thai and Laotian languages to ‘Mae Nam Khong’, literally ‘mother water Khong’.

The mouth of the Mekong called to traders, invaders, and great cultures and philosophers from India and China, providing them safe harbor and entry to upstream riches, including Cambodia’s fish-laden lake, the ‘Tonle Sap’, and the Khmer Kingdom at Angkor.

Coined by the French as "Indochina", friends, foods and freedoms await in the mighty Mekong Delta, an eclectic blend of culture, race and religion along Southeast Asia’s greatest of rivers.

Vietnam | Modified from: portal.gms-eoc.org/maps | Click to enlarge

I hope you enjoy my photos and the information in the links provided. If you feel motivated to travel to the Mekong Delta, please let me know – I’d love to hear from you.

–Steven Martin

Special thanks to my Delta guide, Nguyễn Minh Phương for his time and insight, which helped to make this short article possible.

If you’re traveling to Ho Chi Minh City, he can be reached at: guyenminhphuongjp@gmail.com

Nguyễn Minh Phương, certified Mekong Delta guide

Nguyễn Minh Phương, certified Mekong Delta guide

News

News

BLOG POSTS  ♣  RESEARCH, PUBLICATIONS & PROJECTS


SEPTEMBER 2022 | Certificate of Honor for Dedication and Service

Asst. Professor Steven "Surf Doctor" Martin Retires with a Certificate of Honor for Service and Dedication at the September 2022 Prince of Songkla University Retirement Ceremony in Phuket, Thailand


JANUARY 2022 | Research Publication

Journal of Sport & Tourism

From Shades of Grey to Web of Science: A Systematic Review of Surf Tourism Research in International Journals (2011-2020)

Web of Science (WoS) Indexed (Q2)

https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2022.2037453


DECEMBER 2022 | Research Publication

The Last Refuge and Forced Migration of a Taiwanese Indigenous People During the Japanese Colonization of Taiwan – An Ethnohistory

Journal of Nationalism and Ethnic Politics

Web of Science Indexed (Q2)

Scopus Indexed (Q2)


FEBRUARY 2020

TEACHING DEMO for Eastern Civilization | Silk Road Lecture Series 

In Thailand, a teaching demo is just one of the many elements required when applying for an academic title, such as assistant or associate professor...

Teaching Demo | Eastern Civilization | Silk Road


SEPTEMBER, 2020

Dr Steven A Martin Develops Knowledge Management Webinar for the Faculty of International Studies | How to Conduct a Systematic Review

Introduction to the systematic review – Foundation for long-term success in research and writing in the social sciences

 

Systematic Review Webinar | Knowledge Management Activity


JULY, 2020

University News | Research publication in SAGE Ethnography

Martin, S. A. (2020). A Taiwan knowledge keeper of indigenous Bunun – An ethnographic historical narrative of Laipunuk (內本鹿), southern mountain range. Ethnography. DOI: 10.1177/1466138120937037.


NOVEMBER, 2019

University News | Dr Steven Andrew Martin Promoted to Assistant Professor of Asian Studies in Sociology and Anthropology

The Faculty of International Studies hereby congratulates Dr. Steven Martin on his promotion to Assistant Professor of Asian Studies, as from 4th April 2018.


OCTOBER, 2019

Asst. Prof. Dr. Steven A. Martin offers the Faculty of International Studies’ 1st FIS Research Seminar at Prince of Songkla University

"An Introduction to Q and A Sharing in Research – Publication and Resource Strategies for Publishing in International Journals"

Writing articles for international journals

The seminar was aimed at sharing and fostering dialogue and knowledge on how best to conduct appropriate research for publication in international journals...

University News Online | Faculty of International Studies

Prince of Songkla University News | Faculty of International Studies 1st FIS Research Seminar | Click to read more...


AUGUST, 2019

New research publication on Thai Geography at Prince of Songkla University, Phuket, Thailand.

Dr. Steven A. Martin, Faculty of International Studies, and co-author Dr. Raymond J. Ritchie, Faculty of Technology and Environment, have published the results of their research on Thai Geography for ASEAN and international education in the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography.

Thai Geography News | Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography

Martin, S. A., & Ritchie, R. J. (2020). Sourcing Thai geography literature for ASEAN and international educationSingapore Journal of Tropical Geography 41(1) 61–85


OCTOBER, 2018

Steven A. Martin, Ph.D., Nominated for the Taiwan Ministry of Education Distinguished Alumni Award by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office, Los Angeles

全球留臺傑出校友獎選拔作業推薦表

Graduates and alumni of the Taiwan Scholarship Program teaching in Phuket, Thailand | Steven and Chris

Achievements Highlights

Steven’s outstanding achievements following his scholarship in the Taiwan Studies program at National Chengchi University, Taiwan

Steven’s experiences studying at National Chengchi University, Taiwan inspired him to become a lifelong learner and teacher. He has documented his personal journey in the form of a series of journals, videos, and Website instruction for his students. This has now grown to include a wide range of content: Steven Andrew Martin / International Education Online

Steven has dedicated several Web pages to his scholarship in Taiwan, including unique ethnographic fieldwork with the Bunun, fortunately being present at just the right time to document a traditional ethnic Taiwanese lifestyle and culture:


MAY, 2018

New social science index methodology developed at Prince of Songkla University, Phuket, Thailand

Dr. Steven A. Martin, Faculty of International Studies, and co-author Dr. Raymond J. Ritchie, Faculty of Technology and Environment, have published the results of their research into a social science index and weighting schema for coastal planning and sustainable development in Phuket, Thailand.

Social Science Index Research | Environmental Management in Phuket, Thailand


 

2017 Book Chapter | Surf Resource System Boundaries

Martin, S. A., & O'Brien, D. (2017). Part 2: A systems approach – Chapter 2. Surf resource system boundaries. In G. Borne and J. Ponting (Eds.), Sustainable surfing (pp. 23–38). Routledge.

"Surf Resource System Boundaries" is an environmental management approach aimed at the conservation of surfing sites

Plymouth Sustainability and Surfing Research Group (PSSRG)

In 2013, Steven was invited by the Gold Coast City Council, Australia, to present a new research methodology – the Surf Resource Sustainability Index (SRSI). Speaking at the Global Surf Cities Conference at the Kirra Hill Community and Cultural Centre, Gold Coast, Queensland, Steven brought to light the topic of coastal resource sustainability in Phuket, Thailand.

Based on Steven’s presentation, Doctor Gregory Borne, Director of the Plymouth Sustainability and Surfing Research Group (PSSRG), offered Steven to participate in a new book titled Sustainable Surfing.

After four years of communication and collaboration, the university’s book is published and available to English readers.

About the research

Steven’s research explores the concept of a ‘surf resource system boundary’. His work develops a theoretical concept in environmental science, representing the intersecting and interrelated human and physical elements in the natural world at a given surf site. In the study, Co-authored with Assoc. Prof. Danny O’Brien at Bond University, Australia, Steven explores numerous stakeholder interests and factors related to the ‘whole’ surf system as a sustainable and dynamic model. The research addresses a knowledge gap in this area, broadening the understanding of surf system boundaries and providing clarity in two sets of dimensions: the physical boundaries of surf sites and the key resource stakeholders.

Please visit Steven's Surf Tourism Research page for more information.


 

2017 Book Chapter | Cultural Continuum among the Bunun of Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu), Southern Taiwan

Martin, S. A., & Blundell, D. (2017). Cultural continuum among the Bunun of Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu), southern Taiwan (pp. 215–246). In H. Chang and A. Mona [C. Tsai] (Eds.), Religion, law and state: Cultural re-invigoration in the new age. Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines and SMC: Taipei.

Next generation Bunun explore their ancestral homeland of Laipunuk (內本鹿) in southern Taiwan

20th anniversary of Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines

In 2014, Dr. Martin, was invited to Taiwan to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines in cooperation with Academia Sinica, the foremost research institute in Taipei, ROC. The Museum offered Steven a place in their upcoming publication, a book to commemorate their 20th anniversary: Religion, Law and State: Cultural Re-invigoration in the New Age.

After three years of communication and collaboration, the Museum’s book has been published and is now available to English and Chinese readers.

Religion, law and state: Cultural re-invigoration in the new age | Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines | Ch. 8 – Cultural Continuum among the Bunun of Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu), Southern Taiwan

About the research

Steven’s research was focused on the remote, high-mountain jungle valley of Laipunuk (內本鹿), in the inaccessible mountains of southern Taiwan, home of the Bunun tribe, the last Taiwanese headhunters.

Having lived with the Bunun tribespeople for five years, he recorded their ways of life, their songs, their traditions and their histories, as part of an oral ethnography project.

According to Steven, “Taiwan is the source of the centuries-long process of the peopling of the Pacific, the so-called ‘Pacific Rainbow’ that maps the migration of peoples, materials and languages across the islands of the Pacific, from Taiwan all the way across to Hawaii.”

Speaking for the Faculty of International Studies (FIS), Steven shared his experience:

Their stories are the last of their kind, and it was an immense privilege to have the opportunity to document their lives.”


The Art of Welcome | University Filmworks

The Art of Welcome, with Edward E. Vaughan, is a new video series featuring hospitality and tourism students and their experiences abroad.

The concept is registered with the Writers Guild of America and features the lives of students who study and work in the hospitality and tourism industry. Each episode takes palace in a different country.

The Art of Welcome | Phuket Interns


What Makes a University Great? | University Filmworks

Dr Steven Martin wrote and hosted What Makes a University Great? under the direction of Edward E. Vaughan. The video explores the Hong Kong Polytechnic University’s School of Hotel and Tourism Management (SHTM) and focuses on the story of leadership and the Dean of School, Prof. Kaye Chon. The video was produced by University Filmworks.

At SHTM, Steven discovers a little universe where students, teachers and industry professionals come together with outstanding synergy, uncovering a story of outstanding educators and leadership.

Shooting in Hong Kong with University Filmworks | Read more...

What Makes a University Great?

Interdisciplinary Study

Interdisciplinary Study

INTRODUCTION TO INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY

Course Description

History, concepts and main theories of key disciplines. Topics of study are selected from those of science, social sciences and humanities. An integration of knowledge in order to create new perspectives. Basic practice in systematic investigation involving observation, reading, data searching, gathering and analyzing, practical training, drawing conclusions, and making a presentation.

How this course began

In 2008, the university asked me to design a new course called "Introduction to Interdisciplinary Study". The course description had been approved by the main campus and the rest was up to me.

I understood that the aim of the course was to empower new students with analytical and problem-solving skills required for coursework and self learning, including basic study habits, study skills, and reading and writing strategies.

In order to set a conceptual foundation for the course, I researched and incorporated the deep history and fundamental concepts behind the humanities, social science, science and technology, and applied and professional fields.

The course also needed to introduce research methodologies, including the investigation, write-up, and presentation of a basic research paper on a selected topic.

Five concepts of Interdisciplinary Study

After eight years of teaching Interdisciplinary Studies, I believe that it is the ultimate course to provide students with a better understanding of the university environment and encourage academic professionalism. The very idea of interdisciplinary study contains diverse concepts for the history of institutional education, the branches of knowledge, past and current trends in research, and life-long learning.

I approach this course through five broad concepts:

  1. Critical thinking
  2. Contemporary study skills
  3. Methodologies of study and research
  4. History and nature of the disciplines of study
  5. The interrelated aspects of education and learning

The Maragrita Philosophica The first interdisciplinary textbook

I chose the Maragrita Philosophica [pdf] (the philosophic pearl) as starting point for this course to provide historical perspective and imagination.

The Margarita is a magnificently illustrated encyclopedia compiled in 1503 by a Carthusian monk named Gregor Reisch (c.1467-1525). Reisch produced what is essentially the world’s first interdisciplinary textbook, covering all seven liberal arts and providing appropriate background across disciplines and courses.

Widely used as a university textbook in the early sixteenth century, particularly in Germany, it is a book of historical significance and sheds light on university curriculum and collective scientific knowledge at the close of the Middle Ages, 500-600 years ago.

Separated into twelve chapters, Maragrita Philosophica covers traditional subjects of the trivium (grammar, logic, rhetoric) and quadrivium (arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy); and four chapters address natural philosophy, including the elements, meteorology, alchemy, the plant and animal kingdoms, optics and memory. The final sections and topics include heaven, hell, purgatory; and the book concludes with a chapter on moral philosophy, reflecting the period when church, state and education were closely integrated.

The Margarita Philosophica | Reich, 1503 | Click to enlarge

10 Core Assignments

I developed 10 key assignments for this course to supplement lectures, class assignments and activities, and homework.

  1. Student Schedule: Using the monthly calendar provided in the coursebook, students keep a personal study schedule with important dates and details for their assignments. A study schedule should contain a student’s class schedule, assignment due dates, appointments, study group meetings, and extracurricular activities. Keeping a monthly schedule is a life-long organization skill.
  2. Word Bank: Using the pages provided in the coursebook, students create their own vocabulary list. The Word Bank should be at least 2 pages (with 2 columns per page). Vocabulary should be focused on course content, especially the Humanities, Social Sciences, Physical and Natural Sciences, and Technology. Keeping a Word Bank is a life-long study skill and students are suggested to build a digital version for future learning.
  3. Curriculum Vitae (CV): Using the template and examples provided in the coursebook, students construct a personal CV. The CV should be 1 to 2 pages and identify a student’s special qualities and attributes. By identifying and documenting one’s education, background, and accomplishments, students gain a sense of self-worth and prepare for their futures as young professionals.
  4. University Mapping: As an exercise in experiential learning, students go beyond the classroom to explore the university campus. Students may photograph, video, conduct face to face interviews, and use the internet to identify the history, faculties, departments, and degree programs of PSU. The focus of this project to instill the benefit of experiential learning and to make connections with the campus and the disciplines of study.
  5. Library Assignment: Learning to locate, reference, and cite materials in your studies are essential to university and academic professionalism. Students complete the library assignment sheet provided in the coursebook as part of their mastery of library resources, including locating and referencing books, journals, and digital materials. University library resources include subscriptions to journals and databases and are available to students free of charge.
  6. Environmental Studies: Through an interdisciplinary approach, students share contemporary news and engage in critical thinking toward Environmental Studies. Subjects include current environment issues, such as climate change and tourism, and pinpoint the disciplines of study in a global context.
  7. History of English: English is emerging as the key international language. It is the first language in numerous countries and an important second language in many others. Through lecture, discussion, and an in-class assignment, students discover the history, development, and adaptability of the English language, and how different languages influenced English. Stem-words, root-words, prefixes, and suffixes come to life as students realize the language’s history and nature. (Check out the short presentation, reading passage, and assignment below).
  8. Advanced Searching, Downloading and Organizing Digital Materials: Students develop and apply skills to locate, review, qualify, save, and organize academic information, including journal articles. The assignment is essential for literature reviews and serves to support the individual research paper project due at the end of the semester.
  9. Individual Research Paper: Students learn how to write a 10-page research paper. Topics are academic in nature, focused on the disciplines of study, and need approval from the course lecturer. Research papers follow the research project guidelines and formatting requirements provided in the coursebook. Referencing follows APA Style.
  10. Research Presentation: Students gain practical experience in public speaking and presentation skills through arranging a presentation based on their individual research paper. Presentations are given in PowerPoint (approximately 10 slides). Students learn to be brief, informative, and deliver a presentation in 10 minutes.


Featured Assignment: History of the English Language

English is emerging as the key international language. It is the first language in numerous countries and an important second language in many others.

Through lecture, discussion, and an in-class assignment, students discover the history, development, and adaptability of the English language, and how different languages influenced English.

Stem-words, root-words, prefixes, and suffixes come to life as students realize the language’s history and nature.

 

 

William Shakespeare | English playwright and poet (1564 - 1616)

Academic Profile

Academic Profile

Asst. Professor (Retired) Dr. Steven A. Martin

Author, educator, filmmaker

Asst. Professor Emeritus (Retired) of Asian Studies in Sociology and Anthropology at the Department of Thai and ASEAN Studies, Faculty of International Studies (FIS), Prince of Songkla University (PSU), Phuket Campus

An international academic, and a native speaker of English, originally from Cleveland, Ohio, USA, I have written over 50 published articles in research areas including environmental resource management, surf tourism, Thai geography, and the history of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan.

I have a proven track record of conducting high-level multidisciplinary research, including systematic literature reviews, as well as popularizing difficult subjects through my lectures and online articles for a wide range of audiences.

2007 – 2022: Lecturer and Assistant Professor Emeritus (retired) of Asian Studies in Sociology and Anthropology at the Department of Thai & ASEAN Studies, Faculty of International Studies (FIS), Prince of Songkla University (PSU), Phuket Campus, Thailand.

I have designed and delivered many courses in the fields of environmental studies, geography, ancient civilizations, interdisciplinary studies, qualitative research methodologies, and English language acquisition.

As an enthusiastic supporter of the movement towards digitization and globalization of education, I have developed a range of online learning materials, including professionally produced videos and other multimedia, complete university courses and my Learning Adventures series. These are all curated on my bio website and YouTube channel at:

Page/ Courses ; Page/ Learning-Adventures ; YouTube/ University-Filmworks

Complete listings of all my peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, theses, proceedings, and magazine articles are available online at any of the sites listed above. Please also visit the Taiwan Ethnographic Research  and Surf Tourism Research pages to learn more about my current projects and publication areas.

In 2013, I earned my PhD in Environmental Management from Prince of Songkla University by developing an index for coastal management. The surf resource sustainability index (SRSI) I developed is a methodology which is now used for assessing the conservation aptitude of surfing areas globally.

In 2010, I obtained my MBA in Hospitality and Tourism Management from Prince of Songkla University (PSU) in Phuket, and subsequently received a full scholarship for PhD research in Environmental Management.

Through the support of a Taiwan Scholarship from the Taiwan Economic and Cultural Office (TECO) in Los Angeles, I completed a Master's of Arts in Taiwan Studies (currently Asia-Pacific Studies) in 2006 at National Chengchi University (NCCU), Taipei, ROC.

I graduated with a Bachelors of Arts in Liberal Studies (Chinese Culture & Philosophy) with the University of Hawaii at Hilo (UHH) in 2001, after earning my Associate in Arts degree from the Hawaii Community College (HCC) in 2000.

  • 2013: PhD in Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
  • 2010: MBA in Hospitality and Tourism Management, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
  • 2006: MA in Taiwan Studies, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.
  • 2001: BA in Liberal Studies (Chinese Culture), University of Hawaii, United States.
  • 2000: AA in Liberal Arts (Honors), Hawaii Community College, United States.

The study abroad programs listed below all counted towards either my BA degree from the University of Hawaii or my MA degree from the National Chengchi University, Taiwan. Full details of each of these courses, including the relevant accreditations and my photo journals, are available at:  Page/ Study-Abroad

  • 1995-2002: University of Hawaii – China (summer abroad). Participation in 5 accredited certificate programs, Peking University (PKU), Beijing, PRC.
  • 1996: University Study Abroad Consortium (USAC) – Costa Rica (summer abroad). National University of Costa Rica at Heredia.
  • 1997: School for International Training (SIT) – South Africa (semester abroad – fall). University of Cape Town, South Africa.
  • 1998: College Consortium for International Studies (CCIS) – Spain (semester abroad – spring). International College of Seville (ICS), Spain.
  • 2003-2004: University of Hawaii – Taiwan (academic year abroad). Ming-Hsin University of Science and Technology (MUST), Taiwan, ROC.

A full list of all my awards, scholarships, press and media appearances, and letters and documents of recognition are available at: Page/ Awards-Scholarship

When I was living in Taiwan, I was approached by an agent for a Taiwanese film production company. They recruited me to appear in various TV commercials, including some for blue-chip companies such as Nissan. This led to my being offered a leading role in the successful made-for-TV Taiwanese drama film Numbers.

One of my classmates introduced me to American filmmaker Tommie Williamson, who invited me to fly to Taitung in southeastern Taiwan, to work as a researcher and writer on an oral history project. We would be documenting on film the life-histories of a unique indigenous people who were among the last to be contacted and subjugated by the Japanese colonists.

The project changed the direction of my life, and I spent the next four years making ethnographic films for the Bunun, an ethnolinguistic group who had lost their traditional lands during the Japanese Colony on Taiwan (1895-1945).

In recent years, I worked with Edward E. Vaughan (1942-2018), an accomplished Associate Director (CBS News) and Assistant Director, Production Manager, Producer and Director on many popular TV shows and movies. The work focused on creating educational content including Course Portraits®, education media, and personal video-taped interviews of students and professors, exploring the diverse range of leadership and international education experiences currently available in Asia, particularly in Hong Kong, as well as Cambodia,Thailand and Vietnam.

Through Ed Vaughan's mentorship, I was able to develop University Filmworks Production and Learning, a video production entity offering educational film production and learning opportunities for students through workshops and short courses.

Inspired by reading the Swiss Family Robinson, I left home in the Ohio rustbelt in 1978, at 15 years old, and flew to Hawaii, where I planned to live in a treehouse. I found work as a cook, and trained to become a chef. At the same time, I discovered Hawaii's big waves and surfing. Over the next few years, I learned American Red Cross lifesaving skills, became a County of Hawaii Water Safety Officer, and went on to start a surf school. I taught water safety and surf skills to hundreds of people including international celebrities, movie stars and astronauts from NASA.

My love for traveling, learning, and meeting new people led me to the University of Hawaii's Chinese culture summer program at Peking University. It was a great way to travel and earn a B.A. at the same time. This path led to study abroad in China, Costa Rica, South Africa, and Spain.

After graduating, I was fortunate enough to obtain a prestigious Taiwan Scholarship to study for a Master's degree. My research took me to the mountains of Taiwan to live among the world's last headhunters, the Formosan aborigines, and document their lives in ethnographic films.

Surfing remained my true passion, and after discovering perfect uncrowded waves on the Andaman Coast, I moved to Phuket, Thailand, to join the Faculty of International Studies at Prince of Songkla University. My ongoing research on surf tourism and the environment has led to an MBA, a PhD, and a growing list of publications.

I hope others can benefit from my story and find success in their own lives.

Steven A. Martin Productions | University Filmworks | Youtube Channel

Personal Interviews

Personal Interviews

PERSONAL ON-CAMERA INTERVIEWS

Featured here are some of my favorite on-camera interviews conducted in recent years. Interviewees include professors, students, and colleagues. Formal and informal interviews on a variety of topics are included. Visit University Filmworks on YouTube.

Interview with Mr James Lu | Hong Kong Hotels Association | Steven Martin

In an open dialogue on leadership and innovation with Mr. James Lu, Executive Director of the Hong Kong Hotels Association, we learn about Mr. Lu’s personal success and vision for the future and rewarding aspects of the hospitality industry. The video is recommended for international students looking to improve their career opportunities and personal development.

Interview with Mr James Lu | Hong Kong Hotels Association

Interview with Calvin Yuen | Shang Palace, Kowloon Shangri-la Hotel | Steven Martin

Dr. Steven Martin interviews Calvin Yuen, and outstanding young professional in the hotel and tourism industry. Calvin is a graduate of The School of Hotel and Tourism Management (SHTM) in Hong Kong and serves as an outstanding example of personal development through applied learning and hard work. The interview was conducted at the Shang Palace, Kowloon Shangri-la Hotel, Hong Kong.

Interview with Calvin Yuen | Shang Palace, Kowloon Shangri-la Hotel

Interview with Prof Kaye Chon | School of Hotel and Tourism Management | Steven Martin

Dr. Steven Martin interviews Prof. Kaye Chon from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, School of Hotel and Tourism Management (SHTM), after a recent lecture at the Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism, Prince of Songkla University, Phuket, Thailand. Interview topics include the meaning of hospitality, the prolific growth of the industry in Asia, and the experience of studying in Phuket. Prof. Chon describes the significance of the "Asian Paradigm".

Interview with Prof Kaye Chon | School of Hotel and Tourism Management

Interview with Prof Sombo Manara | Khmer historian | Nha Trang, Vietnam | Steven Martin

Dr. Steven Martin interviews Prof. Dr. Sombo Manara, a leading expert in Khmer ancient history. The interview took place at the Po Nagar Temple in Nha Trang, Vietnam, a 7th - 12th century Hindu temple and vestige of the once powerful Champa Kingdom. Cham is an Austronesian language, part of a super-family of languages generally associated with the seafaring peoples of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Interview with Prof Sombo Manara | Khmer historian | Nha Trang, Vietnam

Interview with Robbert Habibi | American Teacher | Phuket, Thailand | Steven Martin

Dr Steven Martin interviews Robert Habibi, an American Teacher from Washington DC, now working at Prince of Songkla University, Phuket Campus. The film is intended for students considering to studying abroad in Southeast Asia. The interview was conducted by Dr. Steven A. Martin and fosters an awareness and understanding of the Phuket and the region.

Interview with Robert Habibi | English Teacher | PSU Phuket Campus

Interview with Anna Nilsson | Thai-Swedish Student | Phuket, Thailand | Steven Martin

Representing Education Abroad Asia, Dr. Steven A. Martin interviews Anna Nilsson, Thai-Swedish student at Prince of Songkla University, Phuket Campus. The video looks at the student who returns to the island after ten years abroad. Anna reflects her perspective on the experience of studying in Phuket, Thailand, and shares her feelings on the importance of study abroad, learning, and appreciating and respecting local culture.

Interview with Anna Nilsson | International student | PSU Phuket Campus

Interview with Kay Kay Zanonh | American Student | Phuket, Thailand | Steven Martin

Dr. Steven A. Martin interviews American education abroad student Kay Kay Zanonh, who has been studying at the Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism, Prince of Songkla University, Phuket. Kay Kay shares her personal experience on the cost and quality of studying in Phuket compared with her home and friends in the United States. The film is intended for Education Abroad Asia students and academic purposes, fostering international education awareness.

Interview with Kay Kay Zanonh | American student | PSU Phuket Campus

Interview with Prof. Wilhelm G. Solheim II | Clip 1 | 9:29 | Steven A. Martin | David Blundell | University Filmworks

Professor Dr. Wilhelm Solheim II was instrumental in developing the Archaeological Studies Program at University of the Philippines, Diliman (UPD) campus. Interviews took place at his UPD apartment on the morning of 9 April, and the evening of 22 April, 2006. Wilhelm shares his personal experience in archaeology, years of work in Southeast Asia, and his views on the cultural history of Austronesian-speaking peoples. Prof. Solheim died on July 25, 2014, at the age of 89. It was an honor to have met him and I hope viewers can appreciate his humanity in these short interviews. To learn more about Austronesian prehistory and archaeology in the Philippines, visit my online article: Chasing Jade – Archaeology and the Batanes Islands Cultural Atlas.

Part 1 | 9:29 | Prof. Wilhelm G. Solheim II Interview | Dr. Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

Interview with Prof. Peter Bellwood 2006 Personal Interview | Remastered | 5:53 | Steven A. Martin | Batanes Islands, Philippines | University Filmworks

Peter Bellwood, renowned archaeologist and scholar of Austronesian Studies, shares his personal and professional background, including his personal story of attending Cambridge University, lecturing in New Zealand. The interview took place at the Bosco Pier, Batanes Islands, Philippines, and was conducted by Steven Martin and David Blundell. Peter discusses the "Out of Taiwan" expansion of Austronesian-speaking peoples, suggesting research in linguistics, archaeology, and human genetics.

Prof. Peter Bellwood 2006 | Remastered | 5:53 | Dr. Steven A. Martin | Batanes Islands | University Filmworks

From Peter we learn about the unique history and archaeological evidence of the Batanes Islands, Philippines. Peter Bellwood is an accomplished professor of archaeology at the School of Archaeology and Anthropology of the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra, he is a leading specialist in Southeast Asian and Pacific prehistory.

For more on this story, including how I met and came to interview Peter in Batanes, visit my Learning Adventures page Chasing Jade: Archaeology and the Batanes Islands Cultural Atlas. To learn more about Austronesian Taiwan, visit my personal Taiwan Studies page or watch the Taiwan Video Playlist on YouTube.

Ethnographic Film

Ethnographic Film

Ethnographic film and Bunun oral history | Nabu Istanda (left) and his uncle (right) | Click to learn more...

ETHNOGRAPHIC FILM AND BUNUN ORAL HISTORY IN SOUTHERN TAIWAN

In 2003, I met David Blundell, founding anthropologist for the International Master's Program in Taiwan Studies (currently Asia-Pacific Studies) at National Chengchi University (NCCU) in Taiwan. David was teaching a course called Culture and Ethnic Structure of Taiwan, and ethnographic filmmaking was one of the topics in the class. Although I had very little experience in this area, I tagged along with David to learn more.

 

 

I was a first-time graduate student, and was looking for an adventurous and rewarding research topic. Through David and senior students at the university, I was introduced to Filmmaker Tommie Williamson (1955-2017) (see my Taiwan Studies page) and Nabu Istanda with the Bunun Cultural and Educational Foundation (Bunun Village) in Taitung, southern Taiwan.

Nabu encouraged me to come to the Bunun Village and meet his family who were from the Bunun tribe, an indigenous ethnolinguistic group who had resisted Japanese subjugation in the 1920s and 30s and taken refuge in a remote area of the high mountains named Laipunuk (Chinese Nei Ben Lu 內本鹿).

Nabu Istanda at home in the mountains of Laipunuk | Nei Ben Lu 內本鹿

Nabu explained that the Bunun elders in their village, now 70 to 90 years old, were being lost to old age, and with them, their stories of traditional life, beliefs, language, trade, values, and their relationships with one-another, other indigenous tribes, the Chinese, and the Japanese, were being lost forever.

Nabu was asking for rescue ethnography.

Without hesitation, I agreed to help.

The next four years of my life alternated between the classroom in Taipei and the remote mountains of southern Taiwan. I spent most of my life savings on travel, camera gear and mountaineering equipment.

I have now documented this story and research into several pages and videos on this website. If you're inspired to learn more, please review this page and other pages and videos by following links below.

Cornerstone webpages, photos, and videos

In Our Hearts and Minds | Project backstory | 2004

ETHNOGRAPHIC FILM AND RESEARCH | BUNUN ORAL HISTORY

Memories of a Culture, the Istanda Family of Laipunuk 內本鹿 

Filmed primarily at the Bunun Cultural and Educational Foundation (Bunun Village), Taoyuan Village, Yenping Township, Taiwan.

The sample footage provided here includes ethnographic narratives from four siblings, namely two brothers, Biung and Nabu, and two sisters, Ibu and Langus. Each informant recounts their personal experience in the high mountains of southern Taiwan, including historical and cultural events of their forced relocation to the lowland areas surrounding Taitung.

This research is the original work of Tommie Williamson, Nabu Istanda, and Steven Martin, and is intended for academic and cultural purposes. If you would like to use a video for research, gain access to the complete archival footage, or collaborate on a project, please contact me through this website and I will be happy to help.

Tama Biung Istanda | Oral History | Bunun | Laipunuk 內本鹿 | Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

This video, one of 15 clips, is an oral history audio/visual recording of Tama Biung Istanda (1920-2007), recounting his life experience in the mountains of Laipunuk 內本鹿 , southern Taiwan. The interview was conducted in the Isbukun dialect of the Bunun language by his nephew Nabu. Laipunuk was among the last frontier areas of Taiwan to be annexed into Imperial Japan, and the informant tells of his childhood experiences, cultural traditions, and arrival of Japanese police who forced his family to move.

Accepting that the Japanese were a "Great and powerful tribe", Biung joined the Tagasako Volunteers, a group of Taiwan aborigine soldiers. His on-camera story includes events during WWII and his survival in the jungles of Papua New Guinea.

Tama Biung Istanda 1920-2007 | Ethnohistorical Research | Bunun of Laipunuk, Taiwan | Steven Martin | University Filmworks

Sections of this ethnography series have been published in SAGE Ethnography and Religion, law and state: Cultural re-invigoration in the new age as referenced below.

Nabu (Uncle) Istanda 1929-2005 | Oral History | Bunun | Laipunuk | 內本鹿 | Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

This video, one of three clips, is an oral history audio/visual recording of Nabu "Uncle" Istanda, recounting his life experience in the mountains of Laipunuk 內本鹿 (Nei Ben Lu), southern Taiwan. The interview was conducted in the Isbukun dialect of the Bunun language his nephew Nabu. Laipunuk was among the last frontier areas of Taiwan to be annexed into Imperial Japan. The informant tells of his youth and cultural experiences, the arrival of Japanese police, and his family's forced relocation to the Talunas area (Taidong County).

Sections of this ethnography series have been published in Religion, law and state: Cultural re-invigoration in the new age as referenced below.

Nabu (Uncle) Istanda 1929-2005 | Ethnohistorical Research | Bunun of Laipunuk, Taiwan | Steven Martin | University Filmworks

Langus Istanda | Oral History | Bunun | Laipunuk | 內本鹿 | Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

This video, one of five clips, is an oral history audio/visual recording of Langus Istanda (1926-2015) recounting her life experience in the mountains of Laipunuk 內本鹿 , southern Taiwan. The interview was conducted in the Isbukun dialect of the Bunun language by her son Nabu. Laipunuk was among the last frontier areas of Taiwan to be annexed into Imperial Japan. The informant tells of her childhood experiences, cultural traditions, and arrival of Japanese police who forced her family to move.

An English-language translation of this video has been published in the International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies (IJAPS) as referenced below.

Langus Istanda 1926-2015 | Ethnohistorical Research | Bunun of Laipunuk, Taiwan | Steven Martin | University Filmworks

Ibu Istanda | Oral History | Bunun | Laipunuk | 內本鹿 | Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

This video is an oral history audio/visual recording of Ibu Istanda who was in her mid-80s at the time of filming. On-camera support for the interview was provided by her younger sister, Langus. The first of two short interviews of Ibu "Auntie" Istanda before her passing, she tells of the hardships experienced in her youth. As with other family informants in this series, Ibu recounts her life experience in the mountains of Laipunuk 內本鹿 , southern Taiwan. The interview was conducted in the Isbukun dialect of the Bunun language by her son Nabu and her sister Langus.

Ibu Istanda | Ethnohistorical Research | Bunun of Laipunuk, Taiwan | Steven Martin | University Filmworks

AUDIO-VISUAL RECORDINGS FROM BUNUN INFORMANTS WITH EXPERIENCE IN LAIPUNUK

Zu Mei Lin (Bunun name Shiwa) | Ethnography | Bunun | Laipunuk | 內本鹿 | Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

This video is an audio-visual recording of Shiwa (Chinese name Zhu Mei Lin). The interview focuses around the informant's understanding of her Hakka Chinese grandfather's marriage to Bunun and their relocation to Laipunuk from Lakuli, a Japanese trading station across the Central Range, west of Laipunuk. Shiwa's father, of Hakka Chinese and Bunun mixed blood, lived in Laipunuk and made and traded guns and gunpowder in the villages of Takivahlas, Halipusun, and Mamahav. Shiwa explains her family grew corn, millet, pumpkin, sweet potato, taro and tobacco.

Lin Zu Mei (Shiwa) | Ethnohistorical Research | Bunun of Laipunuk, Taiwan | Steven Martin | University Filmworks

The interview was conducted in the Isbukun dialect of the Bunun language by Nabu Istanda. An English transcript of this video is available upon request and interview content is appears in the publications listed below.

Gu Song Shan | Ethnography | Bunun | Laipunuk | 內本鹿 | Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

This video is an audio-visual recording of Bunun Gu Song Shan. On-camera support for the interview was provided by Langus Istanda. The first of two interviews, his talks about his life experience, villages and places in the mountains of Laipunuk 內本鹿 , southern Taiwan. The interview was conducted in the Isbukun dialect of the Bunun language by Nabu Istanda.

Gu Song Shan | Ethnohistorical Research | Bunun of Laipunuk, Taiwan | Steven Martin | University Filmworks

Gu Yu Chun Lan | Ethnography | Bunun | Laipunuk | 內本鹿 | Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

This video is an audio-visual recording of Bunun Gu Yu Chun Lan. On-camera support for the interview was provided by her friend, Langus Istanda. The second of two interviews, she answers questions about Haisul, the notorious Bunun rebel and the events leading to the Laipunuk Incident and forced removal of the Bunun from Laipunuk by the Japanese field police. As with other family informants in this series, she recounts her life experience in the mountains of Laipunuk 內本鹿 , southern Taiwan. The interview was conducted in the Isbukun dialect of the Bunun language by Nabu Istanda.

Gu Yu Chun Lan | Ethnohistorical Research | Bunun of Laipunuk, Taiwan | Steven Martin | University Filmworks

Yu Xing Yo (Bunun name Biung) | Ethnography | Bunun | Laipunuk | 內本鹿 | Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

This video is an audio-visual recording of Bunun Yu Xing Yo. On-camera support for the interview was provided by Langus Istanda. The first of two interviews, his talks about his life experience, including the village of Takivahlas, where the Istanda family first built their home in the mountains of Laipunuk 內本鹿 , southern Taiwan.

The interview was conducted at the Bunun Village (Bunun Buloa 布農部落) in the Isbukun dialect of the Bunun language by Nabu Istanda.

Yu Xing Yo (Biung) | Ethnohistorical Research | Bunun of Laipunuk, Taiwan | Steven Martin | University Filmworks

Bia Shirakimura 白木村 | Ethnography | Paiwan | Bia Culture 白聖賀 | Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

This video is an audio-visual recording of Bia Shirakimura. On-camera support for the interview was provided by his Bunun wife, Langus Istanda. One of four clips in which Bia talks about his life experiences, including the Paiwan village of Bia (白聖賀 Bia Culture), growing up in Tubabalu (now called Tudan) South of Taidong City, and joining the Japanese military as a Takasago Volunteer. He tells us about meeting and marrying his Laipunuk Bunun wife, Langus Istanda, in Bashkal, near today’s Bunun Buloa, and the issues he faced from marrying out of his culture. The interview was mainly conducted in Japanese by Nabu Istanda.

Bia Shirakimura 白木村 | Ethnohistorical Research | Paiwan | Steven Martin | University Filmworks

ETHNOMUSICOLOGY AND THE STAGE AT BUNUN VILLAGE

Indigenous Music of Taiwan | Part 1 | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

The stage at the Bunun Cultural and Educational Foundation in Taidong, Taiwan, allowed an opportunity to record the musical traditions of the Bunun and other indigenous groups. The majority of the participants' families were originally from Laipunuk. Though personal interviews with the participants in this video, English-language synopses were developed (see bottom of the Ethnographic Research page).

As European powers contacted and influenced ethnolinguistic Austronesian-speaking peoples in Southeast Asia, vocal folk songs were particularly influenced by the introduction of new musical instruments. In contrast, the Bunun held on to acappella traditions, and vocal music retained rich and complicated in style and content. The acappella styles featured here range from the most basic to some of the the most complicated of all modern vocal music. With songs for nearly every occasion of life, content includes those for religious ceremonies, worship, nature, work and recreation.

Indigenous Music of Taiwan | Part 1 | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

Please visit my Ethnographic Research page (bottom of page) to learn more.

THE ETHNOGRAPHIC MOMENT | MUSIC AND SOLIDARITY IN TAIWAN

Remastered from "Nikar's Hot Springs Moment"

Filmed at the Hong Ye Hot Springs, Taitung County, Taiwan, three friends from different ethnolinguistic backgrounds meet coincidentally.

  • Nikar/ female/ granddaughter of an Amis shaman and singer.
  • Hawai/ male/ Puyuma/ guitarist
  • Asui/ male/ Kavalan/ wood carver

This recording was unplanned and the artists’ cultural expressions are spontaneous, songs blending and changing tempos and lyrics as each person interjects their own feeling and cultural background when singing their part.

The blending of aboriginal music in this film exemplifies the contemporary trend of solidarity among Taiwan’s indigenous cultures. For example, Amis melody is usually one step faster than Puyuma, and individuals must adjust to each other, while Japanese and Chinese influences on indigenous music reflect the events of last century.

Notes on the content of the video based on personal interviews with the participants. Six pieces of music.

  1. Amis
  2. Amis/ same as song 1 but with Puyuma melody.
  3. Puyuma/ melody from Nanwan area near Taidong/may be the type of song and feeling when meeting a friend from your home town.
  4. Amis/ new melody with Japanese influences.
  5. Amis/ Puyuma/ from Katiputa (Puyuma village)/ new creation/ melody may come from Ziben Hotsprings area (on the road to Kaohsiung from Taitung)/ an Amis/ Puyuma composition with some Chinese language/many aboriginals sing this song today/words indicate solidarity/we are all family.
  6. Amis/ Puyuma/ song used to bring the spirit of friends together/usually sung a-cappella style/ it has the sense of crying out for recognition.

The Ethnographic Moment | Music and Solidarity in Taiwan | Steven A. Martin | University Filmworks

Thank you for visiting my Ethnographic Film page.

I hope you enjoy the videos and the information in the links provided. If you feel motivated to learn more about my experience in ethnographic researchTaiwan Studies, or would like to arrange for me to give a public presentation, please let me know – I’d love to hear from you.

–Steven Martin