English Language Tutor & Life Coach

English Language Tutor & Life Coach

“Surf Doctor” Steven Andrew Martin

Professor of Area Studies in Sociology and Anthropology

English Language Tutor and Life Coach for International Students and Teachers of All Ages and Backgrounds

Hello! I’m Steven, a recently retired Professor of Asian Studies in Sociology and Anthropology.

My online English tutor name is “Surf Doctor” because I developed of the “Surf Resource Sustainability Index” (SRSI), a global model for surfing break conservation, which earned me a PhD in Environmental Management.

English Tutor and Academic Advisor Intro Video for Professor “Surf Doctor” Steven Andrew Martin

I have deep experience with second language learning because I was an international student, having studied Mandarin in China 北京大学 and Taiwan 政治大學 , Spanish in Costa Rica and Spain, and Afrikaans and Xhosa in South Africa. I can also speak Hawaiian-style English, or “Pidgin English”, the common language spoken throughout the Hawaiian Islands today.

Although I am recently retired from university, I continue contributing to international education through online teaching and learning platforms. If you would like to connect with me for a lesson or consultation in English, please send a brief message here on my website contact page.

Special topics of interest among my international students

In recent years, I have helped learners from around the world. Popular topics currently include:

  • Life Coaching through conversational English – A learner-centered approach.
  • Work life balance and and other life philosophies.
  • World knowledge – Exploring life and the world around us through experiential language learning.
  • New enlightenment philosophy – Revisiting how we measure personal and professional success in a world of unprecedented social change.
  • Learning Adventures – Discussing traditional, formal, academic, and time-orientated education and knowledge - in contrast with - untraditional, incidental, accidental, and experiential learning.
  • Content English – Learning English in the context of special topics of interest, such as those related to school or university classes, courses, or other subject areas. Example: "Weather words".
  • Conscious language learning versus subconscious language learning – Exploring English through "Graded Readers".
  • International travel consulting and life experience. See: The Jewel of Travel.
  • Study abroad and international education opportunities.
  • International planning for Asian students intending to live or study in Europe, United States, or Canada.
  • Visa applications and processes for travel or education.
  • University applications and admissions.
  • Resume and CV building and editing.
  • Research, writing, and editing, including university theses and academic papers.
  • Systematic research and publication, including international journal articles.
  • Health, wellness, and the food environment – understanding organic foods and farming.
  • Chinese culture and philosophy 中国哲学 , including the Silk Road 絲綢之路 and the Journey to the West.
  • Anthropology and the indigenous Taiwanese peoples.
  • The sport and philosophy of surfing.
  • Hawaiian culture and history.
  • Developing new and personal life philosophies.
  • Exploring and understanding different measures of success.
  • How and why to build a personal website for yourself and others.

Subjects which I taught as a university professor and continue to share and discuss online with students of all ages and backgrounds

Learning though Content English

Content English is generally understood as a set of vocabulary or world knowledge of a specific subject taught in English. I further define content-based English language learning as a way of empowering students through combining language, literacy, and content knowledge of a given topic, subject, or study area in a real-world context.

Having knowledge of a specialized English vocabulary in the context of a given subject facilitates deeper ‘learning access’ to the world, allowing learners find their own voice and world concept through English.

As a university professor and experienced English language tutor, I do my best to bring the world to my lessons and my lessons to life, encouraging an ‘English journey’ through engaging students to shape their world view in their own words as global citizens.

Teaching English as a Foreign Language

Continuing Education in English Language Learning and (TEFL)

With online English language learning increasing in popularity, I decided to enroll in a 120 hour TEFL course (Teaching English as a Foreign Language), the global standard certificate for English teachers, particularly those who live and work abroad. It was a great way to learn new online teaching skills and strategies, and I completed the TEFL program on December 4, 2023. The course was accredited through the International Council for Online Educational Standards (ICOES) as a Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activity.

Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) – International Council for Online Educational Standards (ICOES) TEFL Certificate

International Open Academy (IOA) 120 Hour TEFL Certificate

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in Teaching English as a Foreign Language

Life Coaching Through Conversational English

A Learner-centered Approach

I recently completed a certificate in Coaching Skills for Learner-centered Conversations with Imperial College London, a global top 10 university in the United Kingdom. The course was focus on how to hold “effective conversations leading to meaningful change.”

“Coaching is unlocking people’s potential to maximize their own performance. It is helping them to learn rather than teaching them.” – Sir John Whitmore

The learner-centered approach to life coaching is based on the idea that people are resourceful, with inner strengths and capabilities. Coaching differs from conventional teaching as the educator’s role broadens from expert to genuine facilitator of learning-in equal partnership with learners within a relationship of respect.

“A coach assumes that there is a solution for the learner’s needs and that learners can find solutions themselves because of their own inner wisdom.” – London Imperial College

In an education setting, life coaching is based on an acquired skillset based on effective conversations leading to meaningful change, one where the educator actively listens, reflects, and asks powerful questions to support the learner to develop new perspectives and new thinking. In this way, the learner is empowered to move forward with their issue.

Coaching Skills for Learner-Centered Conversations | London Imperial College

Searching & Referencing for Academic Papers

Searching & Referencing for Academic Papers

805–008 Searching and Referencing | 2 credit (30 hour) online audiovisual conferencing course.

Course description: Discovering and reading literature reviews, opinion papers and research articles; composing a literature review to support a position; using scholarly writing techniques and citations following APA style.

How to Improve your Scholarly Writing – Searching and Referencing for Literature Reviews and Research Articles 

Course lecturer's resources and examples

Previously taught courses of relevance

Featured Webinar | How to develop a systematic review

Webinar | How to conduct a systematic review | 1:20:46


TOPIC 1

How to distinguish APA and other academic formatting styles

APA Manual 7th | Source: American Psychological Association (2020)

Generally, academic writing adheres to a given style guide or 'school of style'. Common examples include APA (American Psychological Association), CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) and MLA (Modern Language Association).

Example: MLA Style | My 1999 freshman paper | Toponymy of Hawaii

Many publishers of books and journals suggest the Harvard Citation Style (i.e. author-date referencing) although there is actually no official guideline or institutional connection. However, the Harvard University Press does have its own code of formatting author-date citations and reference lists.

Note that publishers of international journals often have unique citation and referencing formats.

While it is important to recognize a variety of formatting styles in academic writing and publishing, our course will focus on undergraduate students gaining proficiency in APA style.


TOPIC 2

How to develop an APA reference list – a brief Introduction

Note: a "reference list" is generally the "works cited" in your paper, while a "bibliography" might include a comprehensive list of literature relevant to your research or thesis.

APA reference example for a journal article | Source: American Psychological Association (2020)

Some examples of sources which require referencing

  • Books
  • Book chapters
  • Journal articles
  • Conference papers
  • Conference presentations
  • Websites and webpages

Worksheets for today's lesson

Due to website formatting limitations, the required APA 1/2 inch hanging indent is not shown in the examples below.

APA references | Books and book chapters

Winichakul, T. (1997). Siam mapped: A history of the geo-body of a nation. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Martin, S. A., & Blundell, D. (2017). Cultural continuum among the Bunun of Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu), southern Taiwan. In H. Chang & A. Mona (Eds.), Religion, law and state: Cultural re-invigoration in the new age (pp. 215-246). Taipei, Taiwan: Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines.

APA reference entries for books | 4:26

APA references | Journals and other periodicals

Martin, S. A. (2011). Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu)–The last frontier of the Taiwan aborigines during the Japanese occupation on Taiwan: Ethnographic narratives of a Bunun elder. The International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies (IJAPS), 7(1) 123–142.

Martin, S. A., & Ritchie, R. J. (2020). Sourcing Thai geography literature for ASEAN and international education. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography41(1) 61–85.

APA reference entries for periodicals | 2:44

APA references | Conferences papers and presentations

Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2012). Towards a surf resource sustainability index: A global model for surf site conservation and Thailand case studyProceedings of the 18th Asia Pacific Tourism Association Annual Conference (APTA) Hospitality & Tourism Education: New Tourism & New Waves (pp. 745–760). Taipei, ROC, June 26–29. Busan, Korea: School of International Tourism, Dong-A University.

Martin, S. A., & Ritchie, R. (2018). Towards an ASEAN community: A scoping study and case for teaching the geography of Thailand in the English languageProceedings of the PSU Phuket International Conference 50th Anniversary Celebration: Creativity and Innovations for Global Development (p. 54). Prince of Songkla University, Phuket, Thailand, March 11–12.


TOPIC 3

How to make APA in-text citations for sentences

APA in-text citation examples | Source: American Psychological Association (2020)

In-text references (or in-text citations) provide a source (author and year of publication) for each piece of information used in your academic writing. In-text citations are commonly placed either at the beginning or end of a sentence or paragraph to identify where information actually came from and are important in order to avoid plagiarism.

Plagiarism is the use of the published work of another person without acknowledgement and is easily avoidable by using an in-text citation to indicate who the original author/s is/are.

Worksheets for today's lesson

APA format | In-text citations, quotations, paraphrases to avoid plagiarism | 3:20


TOPIC 4

How to make an annotated bibliography

Annotated bibliography example in APA style

According to the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL, 2020), “Depending on the purpose of your bibliography, some annotations may summarize, some may assess or evaluate a source, and some may reflect on the source’s possible uses for the project at hand.”

Worksheets for today's lesson

APA format | Annotated bibliography and helpful advice | 6:10


TOPIC 5

How to organize research files and develop a database

Literature Review File Organization Concept


TOPIC 6

How to develop a literature review I Midterm project guidelines

Topic selection and outline

  • Write a comprehensive literature review based on the topics and annotated bibliographies as developed, discussed and approved during our previous lessons.
  • The literature review should follow the APA style for in-text citations and references.

The literature review consists of five parts

  1. A brief introduction.
  2. Three to five relevant subtopics of at least two paragraphs each.
  3. Brief discussion or conclusion highlighting key points of interest and/or knowledge gaps (if any).
  4. Brief suggestions for future research.
  5. A reference list with at least 15 sources representing journals, books, websites, etc.

Formatting

  • Spacing: 1.5.
  • Font: Times New Roman 12pt.
  • Length: 1,500 to 2,000 words.
  • Referencing: APA style (American Psychological Association)

TOPIC 7

How to use Google Scholar for searching and referencing

Assignment

  • Select a topic of your choice.
  • Search Google Scholar to locate 3 to 5 relevant international journal articles.
  • Conduct searches for (1) the topic and (2) relevant scholars in the field.
  • In APA format, make reference list in MS Word and email it to the instructor.

TOPIC 8

How to use ResearchGate for searching and referencing

Assignment

  • Join ResearchGate.
  • Select a topic relevant to your final paper (systematic review).
  • Search ResearchGate for relevant scholars in the field.
  • Contact at least two researchers about their research.

TOPIC 9

How to use YouTube for searching and referencing

Video, documentary film and scholarly presentations: the case of YouTube in searching and referencing online educational films and videos

With digital transformations in education, online films and videos bring to light more than just content, we are exposed to – and adapt to – the use of technology in teaching and learning. For example, searching and referencing videos on YouTube suggest an awareness of search strategies one might employ while identifying diverse genres of videos and experts in a given field or topic area.

In the case of searching and referencing Greece and Asia Minor videos – free and available on YouTube – the following genres come to light and are explored.

  • Academic lectures and presentations
  • Mainstream documentary films and series
  • Diverse videos of interest
  • Animated video presentations
  • Travel videos and vlogs

Searching and Referencing | Greece and Asia Minor Documentary Film Page

Assignment

  • Select a topic (it can be relevant to your final paper).
  • Search on YouTube for related videos.
  • Locate five relevant videos representing each of the genres as discussed in class, including (1) academic lectures and presentations, (2) mainstream documentary films and series, (3) diverse videos of interest, (4) animated video presentations, and (5) travel videos and vlogs.
  • Make a reference for each video which includes an active URL.

How to cite a video in APA | 1:45


TOPIC 10

How to use Wikipedia for searching and referencing | Do's and Dont's

In this lesson, we explore the power of Wikipedia in research and learn how to track down appropriate and citable references to use in our work.

  • Why we don't cite Wikipedia and how to use it as a resource

Lesson and worksheet forthcoming.


TOPIC 11

How to access academic journals and databases at the university

Many academic journals and databases require a subscription or fee to view or download articles. For students and researchers at PSU Phuket, our university has purchased subscriptions to a variety of journals and databases.

You may need to login on campus or through the Prince of Songkla University Phuket Campus Library in order to gain access. This will allow journals and databases to automatically verify the PSU IP address.

Shortist of online databases


TOPIC 12

How to conduct a systematic review | Final project

Building a foundation for long-term success in research and writing in the social sciences

Webinar | How to conduct a systematic review | 1:20:46

Presentation slides | How to conduct a systematic review

Systematic Literature Review Infographic

Systematic review of surf tourism research | Journal of Sport and Tourism

Systematic reviews of surf tourism research

Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2012). The genesis of a new body of sport tourism literature: A systematic review of surf tourism research (1997-2011). Journal of Sport and Tourism, 17(4) 257–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2013.766528

Martin, S. A. (2022). From shades of grey to Web of Science: A systematic review of surf tourism research in international journals (2011-2020). Journal of Sport & Tourism, 26(2) 125–146. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2022.2037453

Thai Geography academic literature review and research

Academic review of Thai geography literature

Martin, S. A., & Ritchie, R. J. (2020). Sourcing Thai geography literature for ASEAN and international education. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography41(1) 61–85.


How to publish papers in international journals

Coordinator : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Raymond J. Ritchie

For the scholar who studies or works in a university, doing scholarly research and publishing the findings in the form of articles in peer-reviewed international journals are some of the most important academic activities. It is important to learn how to do it yourself so you can set-up your own career.

This workshop includes a number of advanced topics regarding how to publish a paper in international journals. It is very good opportunity for learning from the experience and techniques of an experienced publisher of papers. Emphasis is on practical information on how to do it, and what Dr. Ritchie has leant from experience, that is, what works and what does not.

Searching and Referencing | Prof Dr Steven A Martin | Teaching and Learning Resources | Google Search

Forthcoming sections for teaching and learning

3 parts of this course

  1. Searching and sources
  2. Citation and referencing
  3. Annotations and literature reviews

2 required projects (midterm and final)

  1. Literature review
  2. Systematic review

Other

  • How to include foreign language references
Searching and Referencing | Prof Dr Steven A Martin | Teaching and Learning Resources
Environmental Studies & Our Food Environs

Environmental Studies & Our Food Environs

Catch the Environmental Studies wave with Dr. Steven Martin | Click to visit the Surf Tourism Research Page

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

Course Description

Concepts, objectives, and development of environmental studies; systems approach to environment; interaction between life and surroundings; patterns of environmental problems in both physical and biological aspects involved in society and economics; guidelines for designing environmental education processes, including theories and philosophy of environmental management that mitigate or solve environmental problems leading to the sustainable development.


 

STUDENT POSTER PROJECTS – ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCHERS

  1. Choose an environmental researcher with deep experience and present his or her personal and education background leading to their research. Emphasize his or her area of expertise, including fieldwork. Identify the significance of the research in the field of Environmental Studies.
  2. Develop an academic poster using PowerPoint or other software with the ability to incorporate text boxes, maps, tables and images.

Student Research Poster | Environmental Studies


ENVIRONMENTAL VIDEOS AND TRAILERS

Environmental films and videos are a valuable learning resource for students of environmental studies.

Through edX, Netflix, Ted Talks, YouTube, and public television, we learn about individuals who inspire positive change.

The videos listed on our new Environmental Video Page were selected by students in 805-282 Environmental Studies.

Please visit our page to learn more.

Jeremy Jackson | How we wrecked the ocean


FEATURED TOPIC – "FOOD ENVIRONMENT"

Welcome to "Food Environment", an emerging paradigm in Environmental Studies – A new way to think about food.

Food Environment is a concept which expresses a wide-range of topics and system boundaries related food production, distribution and consumption. Students learn from the personal perspective – That is, how human relationships with the environment are most intimate in our choice of what we put into our bodies.

Class projects and presentations develop an understanding of personal and social food environments as we explore how the environment flows into us in the food we choose to eat. The topic expands through class discussion to include contemporary dimensions, such as sustainable, toxic, local, or regional food environments, including private and public food networks and food deserts.

Food Environment | Central Ohio, USA

Intended learning outcomes include students gaining the ability to talk about personal and public health, diet and nutrition, and how personal choices and responsibility impact sustainability and the environment.


ENVIRONMENTAL WORKS OF LEONARDO DICAPRIO

In 2014, Hollywood super star, Leonardo DiCaprio, was appointed as a United Nations representative on climate change. Dedicated to shedding light on global environmental issues, his works include The11th Hour and Before the Flood.

As our class works together to uncover global environmental issues, we learn about the individual scholars featured in these and other films produced by DiCaprio. Representing social, economic, political and scientific interests and communities, experts lead us through stories and examples from around the world, sharing personal insights, history, scientific data and innovative solutions.

Students in 805-283 Environmental Studies are asked to select one of the scholars featured in any of these movies for an in-depth report and presentation on their life, education, and the events leading to the position they defend in the film. Scholars' current projects, research, challenges, and advancements in the field are discussed.

The project is designed so that student projects can bring to light, in their own words, the interdisciplinary context of Environmental Studies in social, physical, and applied sciences.

Leonardo DiCaprio at the United Nations Climate Change Summit with Ban Ki-moon

DiCaprio's UN Speech

Before the Flood

The 11th Hour Movie Trailer

Before the Flood – Full Movie | National Geographic – Archive.org

Before the Flood – Official Website


NATIONAL PARKS OF THAILAND

Taking into consideration that 805-283 Environmental Studies is taught in Phuket, Thailand, course content includes contemporary local and regional issues concerning national and trans-boundary park systems and management.

Students are encouraged to gain personal experience and conduct field research at terrestrial and marine national parks. Nearly any topic is worth sharing with our class, including history, current events, successes, failures, and challenges in park management.

Ao Phang Nga Marine National Park, Thailand | Click to visit my Karst Topography Research PDF

Khao Yai Thailand's first national park

As the first national park founded in Thailand, the significance of Khao Yai has matured and expanded to include five important protected areas in the region. Combined, these natural areas form the Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex, a World Heritage Site declared by UNESCO.

Deer | Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

Monkey | Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

Landscape | Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

Haew Narok Waterfall | Khao Yai National Park, Thailand


SURFING AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

The sport of surfing is fundamentally dependent on limited coastal resources which are more than physical and tangible settings—they encompass the people who interact with the coastal environment and each other.

From the perspective of sustainability and conservation, coastal resources are normally discussed in the scheme of Coastal Resource Management (CRM).

CRM is an increasingly in-style field of study which integrates our understanding of natural and human elements, much like the discipline of geography includes physical and human geography (Martin, 2010).

La'a Loa, Hawaii – Surf Resource System Boundaries | Click to learn more...

Surf Resource System Boundaries

A ‘system boundary’ is a theoretical concept in environmental science representing the intersecting and interrelated human and physical elements in the natural world at a given site. This lecture, based on Martin and O'Brien (2017), develops a system boundary discussion on surf sites, recognizing ‘surf system boundaries’ as more than the beach and sea; they encompass numerous stakeholder interests and factors related to the scope of the ‘whole’ surf system as a sustainable and dynamic model.

Martin, S. A., & O'Brien, D. (2017). Part 2: A systems approach – Chapter 2. Surf resource system boundaries. In G. Borne and J. Ponting (Eds.), Sustainable surfing. Routledge: London.

Kalim Beach, Phuket, Thailand | Click to learn more about surf tourism research...

Thailand Case Study

The tropical resort island of Phuket Thailand has exotic beaches, a dynamic tourism economy, and a distinct new surfing culture. In recent years, recreational surfing in Phuket has gained rapid popularity—It has also gained attention in domestic and international magazines and on the internet. Nonetheless, Thailand’s Andaman Coast remains a mysterious and nostalgic place—in the minds of the people who make up the tapestry of coastal cultures—and in the memories of the tourists who come each year (Martin, 2010).

Martin, S. A. (2010). Coastal resource and surfing in ThailandThailand Surfrider, (1) (pp. 42–50). Thalang, Phuket: Purple Diamond Ltd.


AMAZON RAINFOREST AND GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

One of the most rewarding experiences that I have had in Environmental Studies was the opportunity to visit the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the Amazon Basin, and the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific in 2004. The research was supported in part by the University of San Francisco De Quito (USFQ), Ecuador, and the Study Abroad Journal.

Through sharing my photos and National Geographic videos with students, key topics and issues are open for discussion.

Moi Enomenga, Huaorani Indian | Amazon eco-warrior and environmental celebrity | Click to learn more about Moi's story...

Amazon River House | Rio Napo

Quechua guides | Tiputini, Ecuador

Napo River | Coca, Ecuador

Parrot | Coca, Ecuador

San Cristobal Island | Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ) and Study Abroad Journal | Click to learn more...

Seals on the beach | San Cristobal

Galapagos Brown Pelican | San Cristobal

Galapagos Tortoise | San Cristobal

Galapagos Marine Iguana | San Cristobal


Thank you for visiting the Environmental Studies Page.

I hope you enjoy the photos and information in the links provided. If you feel motivated to know more about my other courses or other Learning Adventures, or would like to arrange for me to give a public talk, please let me know – I’d love to hear from you.

–Steven Martin

Thai Geography & Resources

Thai Geography & Resources

THAI GEOGRAPHY

ภูมิศาสตร์ ประเทศไทย

Course description

Geographical characteristics in each region of Thailand as well as the borders of neighboring countries; Regional resources; Geographic factors which cause local change, including careers, permanent settlements and important tourist destinations; Fieldwork is part of the course.

Typical day at the beach in Phuket during the Southwest Monsoon. Onshore winds and waves with passing heavy showers | Thai Geography

Typical day at the beach in Phuket during the Northeast Monsoon, with light winds and calm seas | Thai Geography

Course objectives

Students are expected to understand and be able to express their own ideas in the following areas:

  1. The location, size and borders of Thailand.
  2. Physical and human resources of Thailand.
  3. Characteristics of Thailand in a regional context.
  4. Various map projections and thematic maps of Thailand.
  5. Important domestic and international tourist attractions in Thailand.
  6. Geographic terms and concepts in the Thai context, including location, space, and area.
  7. Geographical factors causing local change, including occupations, settlements, and migration.

CURRENT RESEARCH

Martin, S. A., & Ritchie, R. J. (2020). Sourcing Thai geography literature for ASEAN and international education. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 41(1) 61–85.

Abstract: This study surveys the available English-language literature and learning resources covering the field of Thai geography, and provides historical review of Thai geography education and an inventory of relevant, accessible materials for ASEAN and international undergraduate students, educators and researchers. We note that the discipline and context of Thai geography has shifted toward new technologies, particularly geographic information systems (GIS), and this has left a void in practical and accessible text for high school and undergraduate students in gaining broad and traditional knowledge of the field. Our study finds that the accessibility of introductory English-language texts on Thai geography is limited, and that existing texts appear mainly in the grey literature or widely dispersed across various disciplines of study. The paper provides a platform to help future researchers and to facilitate future production of English-language textbooks and other study materials in the field of Thai geography.

2018 | Conference Presentation

Exploring Ko Yao Noi | Thai Tourism Geography 2018


INTRODUCTORY PRESENTATIONS AND PHOTO ALBUMS

PDFs and Photos for Viewing and Downloading

  • A Case for Teaching Thai Geography in English – 2mb pdf
  • Intro to Karst Topography and the Andaman Coast, Thailand – 18mb pdf
  • Intro to Map Projections – 6mb pdf
  • Intro to Map Types and Themes (Emphasis on Thailand) – 8mb pdf
  • Koh Yao Noi, Phang Nga – Google Photos
  • Koh Yao Yai, Phang Nga – Google Photos
  • Nai Yang Beach, Phuket (Field Trip) – 17mb pdf
  • Phuket Aquarium – Google Photos
  • Site Visit in Ubon Ratchathani (Sao Chaliang) – 5mb pdf
  • Site Visits in Ubon Ratchathani (Emerald Triangle) – 11mb pdf
  • Surf Resource Sustainability (Phuket, Thailand) – 4mb pdf
  • Trash Talking (Marine Debris on the Andaman Coast) – 400kb pdf

Exploring Ko Yao Yai | Thai Tourism Geography 2018


THE SIX REGIONS OF THAILAND

The 76 Provinces of Thailand | Kids Learning Tube

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF THAILAND | 76 PROVINCES + Bangkok Special Administrative Zone | Dr. Steven A. Martin © | Click to Thai Regions Page

1. NORTHERN Thailand | Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai | Highest peak in Thailand, at 2,565 m (8,415 ft)

2. NORTHEASTERN Thailand | Haew Narok Waterfall, Nakhon Ratchasima | Khao Yai National Park

3. CENTRAL Thailand | Phra Prang Sam Yot, Lopburi | Khmer historical site

4. EASTERN Thailand | Mu Ko Chang National Park | Trat

5. WESTERN Thailand | Phra Nakhon Khiri Temple | Petchaburi

6. SOUTHERN Thailand | Phi Phi Island, Krabi


HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY THE BAN CHIANG ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE AND MUSEUM

We visited this site on July 8, 2022

In the photos below, note the '3 periods' of Ban Chiang archaeological research on interpretation signage (as defined by American archaeologist Joyce White).

Some items on display are from other areas of Thailand and serve to broaden our thinking of Ban Chiang as a single location to include historical geography and cultural markers from across the region.

Ban Chiang Archaeological Museum | July 8, 2022

Artifacts of the Middle Period (c. 3000-2300 BP)

Ban Chiang World Heritage Site | NHK

According to UNESCO (2018), the Ban Chiang Archaeological Site is considered the "Most important prehistoric settlement so far discovered in South-East Asia. It marks an important stage in human cultural, social and technological evolution. The site presents the earliest evidence of farming in the region and of the manufacture and use of metals."

Ban Chiang is located in Udon Thani Province in northeast Thailand, within the watershed of the Mekong River, and was continuously occupied from 1495 BC until c. 900 BC, placing it among the earliest scientifically-dated prehistoric farming and habitation sites in Southeast Asia. Research indicates that wet rice agriculture, associated technological complex of domesticated farm animals, ceramic manufacture, and bronze tool-making technology, represent a well-defined cultural complex distinctive from anything that preceded it.

Through it, we can "Trace the spread and development of prehistoric society and its development into the settled agricultural civilizations which came to characterize the region throughout history which still continue up to the present day" (UNESCO – Ban Chiang Archaeological Site, 2018).


STUDENT RESOURCES

Witherick, Ross, & Small. (2001). A modern dictionary of Geography. London: Arnold. [9mb pdf]

Thailand Base Maps

Based maps for Thai Geography student projects in jpeg and pdf formats:

Thai Geography 2012 Class Photo | Emerald Pool (Sra Morakot), Krabi, Thailand


Winichakul, T. (1997). Siam mapped: A history of the geo-body of a nation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Thongchai Winichakul's 1997 book, Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-body of a Nation (with English and Thai versions), explores the Siamese understanding of territory and state before the delineation of geographic boundaries in the modern sense. Winichakul notes that as a Western discipline, modern geography was originally embraced by King Mongkut (1804-1868), and the field of study provided impetus to the overall educational reform process in Thailand.

Winichakul (1997) Siam Mapped


Kermel-Torres, D. (2004). Atlas of Thailand: Spatial structures and development. Paris: IRD Editions.

Atlas of Thailand, Spatial structures and Development, is a comprehensive English language resource featuring spatial maps. Scans provided below are intended for Thai Geography students and academic purposes only.

  • Changes in Boundaries – 500kb
  • Ethno-Linguistic – 500kb
  • Energy Infrastructure – 500kb
  • Inter-Regional Migration – 500kb
  • Nation-State Territory – 500kb
  • Land Cover/Climate – 500kb
  • Relief/Hydrologic – 700kb

Aiemchareon, W. Phurahong, S., & Chuaywong, S. (2010). Thailand atlas. Bangkok: Aksorncharoentat.

Thailand Atlas is an introductory Thai language resource for students of Thai Geography. Scans provided below are intended for students and academic purposes only.


GMS – Greater Mekong Subregion

The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Economic Cooperation Program (greatermekong.org) supports a variety of development projects, including the production of maps and other geographic information in the six nations that share the Mekong River. The high-resolution maps provided below are intended for students and academic purposes only.

  • GMS Thailand (Country Page)
  • GMS Atlas of the Environment (2012) [Download 24mb]
  • Ethnic Groups (Continental Southeast Asia) – 1mb
  • Relief & Provincial Capitals (Thailand) – 1mb
  • Topography (Continental Southeast Asia) – 1mb
  • Tourism (Continental Southeast Asia) – 1mb
  • Transport Corridors (Continental Southeast Asia) – 1mb

ICEM – International Centre for Environmental Management

Established in 1999, International Centre for Environmental Management (ICEM), is an independent technical service centre that assists government, private sector and communities to enact policies for sustainable development. The organization specializes in biodiversity conservation, climate change, water resources management, strategic environmental assessment, and environmental and social economics. The maps provided below are intended for Thai Geography students and academic purposes only.

Relevant Thailand country maps – Archived from 2000 (low res only)


United States University Websites/ Projects


International Organizations

  • BOBLME – Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Project (2008-2017)
  • GMS – Greater Mekong Subregion
  • ICEM – International Centre for Environmental Management – Thailand
  • IUCN – The International Union for Conservation of Nature – Thailand
  • MRC – Mekong River Commission for Sustainable Development
  • UNESCO – The United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture – Thailand
  • US-Aid – United States Agency for International Development – Thailand
  • WWF – World Wide Fund for Nature – Thailand

Governmental Departments and Organizations under the Thai Ministries (in Thai)

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Ministry of Information and Communication Technology

Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives

Ministry of Tourism and Sports

Ministry of Science and Technology


English Summaries of Thai Literature on the Geography of Thailand

Aiemchareon, W. & Aiemnor, A. (2008). Geography. Bangkok: Aksornchareontat. [วิโรจน์ เอี่ยมเจริญ และ อภิสิทธ์ เอี่ยมหน่อ. (2551). ภูมิศาสตร์. กรุงเทพมหานคร: อักษรเจริญทัศน์].

  • Aiemchareon and Aiemnor (2008) published Geography, an overview of Asian geography commonly used in first and second year Thai high school education and includes a chapter identifying six key areas in Thai geography: economics, society and culture, population, physical geography, interaction and environment, and the preservation of natural resources.

Aiemchareon, W. Phurahong, S., & Chuaywong, S. (2010). Thailand atlas. Bangkok: Aksorncharoentat. [วิโรจน์ เอี่ยมเจริญ และคณะ. (2553). ไทยแลนด์ แอตลาส (พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 5). กรุงเทพมหานคร: อักษรเจริญทัศน์].

  • Aiemchareon et al. (2010) provide an illustrated geography in terms of an atlas with images and maps which illustrate and overview physical and human features and resources of the country, including hydrologic, agricultural, mineral, and transportation. The book includes a map-based historical geography of the Kingdom and discussion on each of Thailand’s provinces. At the time of writing, Thailand has 77 provinces (76 provinces and Bangkok representing a special administrative area structured as a province).

Boonchai, S. (2006). Thai geography. Bangkok: Odeon store. [สุภาพ บุญไชย. (2549). ภูมิศาสตร์ประเทศไทย (พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 2). กรุงเทพมหานคร: โอเดียนสโตร์.]

  • Boonchai (2006) provides an overview of the study of geography in Thai, aimed mainly at secondary school students. The research includes an overview of Thailand’s physical regional geography. Of particular interest, the book identifies Thai aquifers and references the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) website and other academic resources.

Thai Geography Publications by Course Instructor

Thank you for visiting my Thai Geography course page.

If you feel motivated to know more about Thai geography, or would like to arrange for me to give a public talk, please let me know – I’d love to hear from you.

–Steven Martin

Sam Pun Boak (3,000 Holes) along the Mekong River | Geographic wonder in Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand


NEW PHUKET AQUARIA | Dr Steven A Martin | Thai Geography | University Filmworks | พิพิธภัณฑ์สัตว์น้ำ | ภูเก็ต

When Phuket "Aquaria" opened in August, 2019, and we were among the first to visit and make this short video for our Thai Geography students. The new aquarium, located in the basement of Central Phuket Floresta, is the largest in Thailand, and features fresh and saltwater fish and turtles, otters, sharks, giant groupers, penguins, stingrays, jellyfish, lizards, insects, and snakes.  พิพิธภัณฑ์สัตว์น้ำที่ใหญ่ที่สุดในประเทศไทย | เซ็นทรัลฟลอเรสต้า

Phuket Aquaria | New 3:33 Video | พิพิธภัณฑ์สัตว์น้ำ | ภูเก็ต

Southeast Asian Civilization Global Context

Southeast Asian Civilization Global Context

Southeast Asian Civilization Online

SOUTHEAST ASIAN CIVILIZATION (SEAC)

Course Description

Background and development of society and culture in Southeast Asian countries with an emphasis on major peninsular and mainland civilizations; The influence and impact of Eastern and Western civilizations on Southeast Asia in terms of cults, beliefs, religions, traditions, education, society, economy, and governance.

The Bayon at Angkor, Cambodia, built in the late 12th century by the Mahayana Buddhist King Jayavarman VII

Course Readings

Church, P. (2017). A Short History of South-East Asia, Sixth Edition. Singapore: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Higham, C. (2014). Early Mainland and Southeast Asia: From first humans to Angkor. Bangkok: River Books.

Course Portrait | Indonesian Culture and Dance

ABOUT THE COURSE

Southeast Asian Civilization (SEAC) is an exciting new course with global significance.

This course looks into the pre-history of the region before examining the impacts of colonial powers and post-World War II developments. Current events provide excellent topics for research projects and in-class discussion.

The ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is currently one of the strongest economic growth areas globally, and this course offers a much-needed understanding of the region's complex history and rich ethnolinguistic landscapes.

Course Portrait | Burmese Culture and Dance

ASEAN

With the establishment of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and the increasing integration of the region through the ASEAN Socio-cultural Community, a growing range of opportunities exist for employment, trade, and travel within and between member countries as well as with other regional trade partners, especially China.

As English is the official language of ASEAN, all member countries have agreed to the goal of teaching every child the language of a neighboring country as well as English. ASEAN represents one of the brightest hopes for economic growth in the present and future.

South East Asia Map | Click to enlarge


A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO CIVILIZATION

A Brief Introduction to Civilization | Terms and Concepts | PDF


FRESHMAN POSTER PROJECTS | ARCHAEOLOGISTS AND FIELD SITES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

Freshman Posters

Click to view student posters (2017) PDF

Student poster | Archaeologist Robert Bradford Fox | Leta-Leta Cave, Palawan, Philippines | Click to enlarge


A 10 period approach to studying Southeast Asian countries

I have developed a modest 10-topic chronological framework for studying individual Southeast Asian countries. Topics point to core histories and geographies and provide guidance for student presentations and class discussions. Topics and subtopics may overlap or apply to more than one period.

  1. Prehistory – Archaeology, Anthropology and Linguistics
  2. City-states, chiefdoms, kingdoms and dynasties – Historical geographies and indigenous peoples
  3. Colonial powers and governance – British, French, Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish
  4. WWII and Japanese rule – Imperial power and global conflict
  5. Return of colonial powers – New resistance and legacy
  6. Independence – The rise of national identities and new political geographies
  7. International relations (IR) – Nationalism and the global stage
  8. ASEAN – Rise and development of inter- and intra- regional relationships
  9. Contemporary issues – Globalization, urbanization, education and technology
  10. Tourism Geography – Planning, development and case studies

 

CNA (Channel News Asia) Shadows Of Empires | Inventing Southeast Asia


CAMBODIA

Khmer Mystery | Fou-nan Lost City | With Charles Higham and Miriam Stark | 41:00


VIETNAM

Traditional Vietnamese Noodles | Old Quarter, Hanoi, Vietnam | Click to learn more...

A Day in Ho Chi Minh City | Click to Photo Album

Students in Ho Chi Minh City | Click to photo album

Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon | Ho Chi Minh City

Interview at Po Nagar Temple in Nha Trang, Vietnam | Cham Culture | Steven Martin


THE PHILIPPINES

The Batanes Islands | Click to Batanes Islands Learning Adventure Page

Anthropologist Wilhelm G. Solheim II (1924–2014) (left) and David Blundell (right)

Banca Boat at Siargao Island | The Philippines | Click to more photos...

2006 Interview | Peter Bellwood, Batanes Islands, Philippines | Steven Martin


LAO PDR

Research at the Plain of Jars using virtual reality and drones | Monash University

Contemporary Topics for Today's Discussion

  1. Plain of Jars | Exploring Prehistory

  2. Dams on the Mekong | Economy & Ecology

  3. Casino Enclaves | Development and Poverty


INDONESIA

Introduction to Indonesia | Click on image to view

Our 2016 Indonesian Culture and Dance Class | Guest lecturer Imam Wahyudi Karimullah, University of Islam Malang (UNISMA)

Wonderful Indonesia | Official tourism video series

Journey through Wakatobi

Journey through Lombok

Journey through Banyuwangi


MYANMAR

Burmese Thanaka Culture Class | Steven Martin

Prayer for Peace Documentary | 2007 Matt Blauer

The Lady | Story of Aung San Suu Kyi


THAILAND

Sukhothai Historical Park | Sukhothai Kingdom 1238–1438 | Click to UNESCO

Click on a photo to visit the Thai Geography Page with detailed maps, downloads, and other student resources.

Thailand Culture & Heritage | Tourism Authority of Thailand

Wat Phra That Doi Suthep | Chiang Mai, Thailand

Bang Pa In summer palace | Ayutthaya Province

Chak Phra Buddhist Festival | Surat Thani Province

Phuket Aquaria

The new Phuket Aquaria, or Aquaria Phuket, Thailand, opened August, 2019, and we were lucky to be among the first to check it out and make this short video for our Thai Geography students.

Located in the basement of Central Phuket Floresta, is the largest aquarium in Thailand, featuring a cast of thousands from Thailand and other countries, including fresh and saltwater fish and turtles, otters, sharks, groupers, penguins, stingrays, jellyfish, lizards, insects, and snakes.

PHUKET AQUARIA | อควาเรีย ภูเก็ต


SOUTHEAST ASIAN CIVILIZATION | FINAL POSTER PROJECT | ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUPS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

PROJECT TYPE | ACADEMIC POSTER

Develop an academic poster using PowerPoint or other software which can incorporate text, maps, tables, and images.

PROJECT THEME | ANTHROPOLOGY, ETHNICITY, AND LANGUAGE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

  1. Choose an anthropologist with deep experience in living among, or studying, an ethnolinguistic group in Southeast Asia.
  2. Discuss the events or interests which led the anthropologist to study the ethnic group or culture.
  3. Emphasize the language, culture, history, and location of the ethnic group.
  4. Identify the significance of the ethnic group in terms of Southeast Asian civilization.

POSTER SIZE | INTERNATIONAL A3

Set slide dimensions for international A3, landscape (297 x 420 mm) (11.7 x 16.5 in)

The Ivatan, an Austronesian ethnolinguistic group, Batanes Islands, The Philippines | Click to learn more...


Thank you for visiting my Southeast Asian Civilization Course Page.

I hope you enjoy my photos and the information in the links provided. If you feel motivated to learn more about Southeast Asia, or would like to arrange a public talk, please let me know – I’d love to hear from you.

–Steven Martin

Golden Buddha, Ko Samui, Thailand

Eastern Civilization & Chinese Culture

Eastern Civilization & Chinese Culture

Tibetan Culture at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

EASTERN CIVILIZATION 

Course description

Civilization of Persia, India, China, Japan and Korea; Development of political, economic, social, and cultural thinking; The dawn of Eastern philosophy; Epoch of changes through western civilization and its influence on social systems and philosophy of the East, and Eastern civilization’s adaptation towards globalization; The Impact of Islamic, Indian, and Chinese civilizations on other Far East countries.

Teaching Demo | Eastern Civilization | The Silk Road

Backstory

In 1995, I applied to Peking University (北京大学) and the  University of Hawaii at Hilo (UHH) to study Chinese philosophy after a professor captured my imagination when he said:

"Go to China – learn many things – change your life."

He was right; it did!

Since that time, I have been fortunate to study with outstanding Chinese professors, such as Yang Xin and John H.L. Cheng during summer study abroad programs with the Department of Philosophy at Peking University, widely considered to be China's top university in Humanities and Social Sciences, earning the nickname "Bei Da" (北大), literally "North Big".

At Peking University 北京大学 1995

Professor Cheng

University of Hawaii Professor John H.L. Cheng | 1995 Chinese Culture Study Tour with Peking University

One lifetime is not long enough to allow for a complete understanding of Chinese culture. Once a student, always a student – As reflected in the Chinese proverb: "Huo dao lao, xue dao lao," that is, "Live arrive old, study arrive old," an age-old Chinese belief in life-long learning.

Combining 20 years of academic experience with 5 University of Hawaii and Peking University Chinese Culture Study Tours, and as many accredited independent study travels in mainland China, I am happy to share my personal and practical knowledge with students through several introductory presentations featured here.

The topics and links provided are intended to guide open discussions and encourage active learning among students.

STUDENT POSTER PROJECTS | ARCHAEOLOGISTS AND FIELDWORK IN EAST ASIA

PROJECT TYPE | ACADEMIC POSTER PRESENTATION

Develop an academic poster using PowerPoint or other software which can incorporate images, maps, tables, and text boxes.

PROJECT THEME | ARCHAEOLOGY IN EAST ASIA

Choose an archaeologist with deep experience in East Asia and discuss his/her education and personal background leading to their fieldwork. Emphasize the archaeological site or group of sites where s/he conducted fieldwork and research.

Note: Archaeology is the study of the ancient and recent human past, cultures, and civilizations through material remains and may include Cultural Resource Management (CRM) concerning the measures related to handling recovered materials.

POSTER SIZE | INTERNATIONAL A3

Set slide dimensions for international A3, portrait or landscape (297 x 420 mm) (11.7 x 16.5 in)

Best Eastern Civilization Midterm Poster | By Pupae 2018

INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE CULTURE

Chinese Culture | Typical art featuring the guardian-philosopher

Introduction to Chinese Thought in the Eastern Tradition | PDF

Introduction to Chinese Philosophy in the Context of Eastern Civilization | PDF

FEATURE PRESENTATION SERIES

THE CHINESE SILK ROAD

I first traveled the Chinese Silk Road in 1995 (Xian to Kashgar) and again in 2001 (Beijing, China, to Delhi, India).

The presentations featured here are based on my personal experience, that is, teaching through storytelling. As part of the Learning Adventure series, I have designed two website instruction pages: Part I – The Silk Road, and Part II – Pakistan and the Indus Valley.

On Ancient Tracks | The Silk Road and My Journey to the West | Click to learn more...

2011 scholarly presentation on the archaeology of the Silk Road by Colin Renfrew at the Penn Museum

Unsolved Mysteries of the Silk Road | Colin Renfrew | Penn Museum | 1:00:07

I have been fortunate to visit and explore a number of the sites and topics featured in Renfew's presentation. For our class discussion today, here are a few of Renfew’s "Questions of east-west exchange before Silk Road: one wheel, few horses".

  1. Earliest contacts: the millet question?
  2. First settlements in Xinjiang? : wheat at Xioahe
  3. The first copper metallurgy in China?
  4. How did the chariot reach China?
  5. The first mounted warriors in China?
  6. Indo-European origins seen from the east

National Geographic | Treasure Seekers: China's Frozen Desert

Based on the lives of Sir Aurel Stein and the 7th century Buddhist Monk, Xuanzang: "As commerce flourished along the Silk Road, Central Asia became a melting pot of cultures. Here on the edges of the Taklmakan Desert, an exotic blend of Indian, Mongol, Chinese, and European influences fueled an astonishing cultural Renaissance. In the 7th century, a Chinese monk, Xuanzang, plunged into the desert while on a Buddhist pilgrimage to India...

...His descriptions of the oasis-cities he encountered would prove invaluable to another explorer, more than a thousand years later. 20th century archeologist Sir Aurel Stein took on the deadly Taklamakan to prove his own theories about Western China's lost civilization. Again and again Xuanzang's writings led him to archeological treasure - once thriving cities now buried in the sand. On their monk's trail, Stein made his greatest discovery, a thousand-year-old Buddhist library in near-perfect condition " (National Geographic, 2001).

Marc Aurel Stein's Century-old Adventure Diary | Treasure Buried in the Sands

Click on the image below to view or download this 2013 CCTV-9 (China) English Documentary

Treasure Buried in the Sands

Century-old Adventure Diaries

Marc Aurel Stein [CCTV-9 Documentary English] 48 Minutes – Download

Click on the image or button below to view Stein's 1915 survey map of "Innermost Asia" (China's Taklimakan Desert) or his 1933 book "On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks"

Stein's 1933 "Innermost Asia" Map

CCTV Documentary Series Xuan Zang's Pilgrimage

In 2016, China's CCTV produced "Xuanzang's Pilgrimage", a documentary series on Xuan Zang's travels on the Silk Road. Narrated in English, the 12 segments are posted in 6 videos on YouTube. Runtime of each video is approximately 48 minuets.

Xuan Zang (1-2)

Xuan Zang (3-4)

Xuan Zang (5-6)

Xuan Zang (7-8)

Xuan Zang (9-10)

Xuan Zang (11-12)

2016 Biographical Drama Da Tang Xuan Zang

The 2016 Mandarin language historical drama “Da Tang Xuan Zang” is based on the life and travels of Xuan Zang during the Tang Dynasty. The film maps the young monk’s travels to India and quest for Buddhist teachings, featuring some of the challenges and struggles he faced.

Xuan Zang 2016 Historical Drama (Trailer)

INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE PHILOSOPHY

A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy

Chan, W. (1969). A sourcebook in Chinese philosophy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Available online at Archive.org

Click to view or download this book | PDF

Key chapter reviews by Dr Steven A Martin

CONFUCIUS AND THE CONFUCIUS TRADITION

2010 Biographical Drama | Confucius

Confucius Motion Picture | Full HD | 2:05:00

TAI SHAN (Mt. Tai) THE SOUL OF CHINA

Tai Shan, China | PDF Presentation

Cultural continuum on the North China Plain

Tai Shan | UNESCO World Heritage

According to UNESCO: "The sacred Mount Tai ('shan' means 'mountain') was the object of an imperial cult for nearly 2,000 years, and the artistic masterpieces found there are in perfect harmony with the natural landscape. It has always been a source of inspiration for Chinese artists and scholars and symbolizes ancient Chinese civilizations and beliefs."

GB Times | Tai Shan 2:41

Pilgrimage to Tai Shan | 1997

Dawenkuo Archaeological Site | 1997

THE GREAT WALL | SKATEBOARDING THROUGH TIME

Between 1995 and 2002, I studied abroad during summers at Peking University in Beijing. Hiking on the Great Wall quickly became my favorite activity, outside of attending lectures in Chinese philosophy on campus.

University of Hawaii students at Jin Shan Ling Great Wall

Each time I traveled to the Wall, I learned something new, and the more I visited different areas, the more I wanted to learn about the history and culture behind this amazing symbol of the Chinese people.

Peking University Professor Yang Xin was able to provide me with what I was looking for, namely historical and esthetic perspectives from philosophical viewpoints.

Today, my own Great Wall presentations reflect these expediences.

Great Wall of China Presentation | 57 Slides | 20 MB PDF

Hiking the Huang Hua Great Wall near Beijing | Online

Smithsonian | 5:00

TED-ed | 4:30

TAIWAN | WINDOW TO HISTORY

TAIWAN STUDIES PLAYLIST | Steven A Martin, PhD | National Chengchi University | University Filmworks

In recent years, the Taiwan (ROC) - China (PRC) relationship plays out on the geopolitical stage. However, Taiwan has its own rich history, which I have generally organized into six sections.

  • Early indigenous Austronesian-speaking peoples inhabited the island for an estimated 5,000 years.
  • Dutch, Spanish, French, British, and other cultures prior to Chinese colonization of the Taiwan.
  • A loosely administered territory of China during the Qing Dynasty.
  • The island's annexation by Japanese after the treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895.
  • Post WWII period, as Taiwan became a stronghold for the Chinese Nationalist regime supported by the USA, and the economic miracle which catapulted the country into the 21st century.
  • Democratic Taiwan, including the indigenous rights movement.

Ethnohistorical Research on the Bunun of Taiwan

The Bunun, an Austronesian-speaking peoples on Taiwan | In Our Hearts and Minds | Steven Martin 6:25

Other research and videos on indigenous Bunun and Paiwan ethnolinguistic groups in Taiwan

The Sage Hunter | Full movie 1:40:00

Eat Drink Man Woman 飲食男女 1994 Taiwanese film directed by Ang Lee

飲食男女 refers to the basic human desires and accepting them as natural as expressed in the Book of Rites, one of the Confucian classics.

Why this film is appropriate for students in Eastern Civilization

In this film, the ancient art of Chinese cuisine connects with the personal lives of a contemporary Taiwanese household. Through watching the film, students realize that the thinking, detail and complexity of cooking mirrors Chinese life and philosophy as intricate and integrated processes. In Eastern civilizations, food is prepared and served in accordance with age old traditions – socially, culturally and politically.

The way we eat is the way we think.

Eat Drink Man Woman | Official Trailer

Download and view Eat Drink Man Woman (Full Movie) here on Google Drive


INDIAN CIVILIZATION | Key Words for Student Presentations

Taj Mahal, Agra, India | Mughal Empire | Photo 2001

Choose a key word from the list below and develop a 15 minute PowerPoint presentation with text, images, maps and one video link.

Key words offered here reflect a variety of concepts, including art, civilization, culture, dynasty, empire, geography, language, literature, people, politics, and religion.

Key words: Indus Valley, Harappa, Dravidian, Aryan, Sanskrit, Vedas, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Maurya, Ashoka, Taxila, Kushan, Bactria, Gandhara, Gupta, Islam, Sikhism, Mughal, British Raj, Scheduled Tribes, Pakistan, Bangladesh

Jivita's Story | Dr B R Ambedkar's social transformation through Buddhism | Original footage for "Arising Light" by David Blundell, content selection by Steven A Martin, and editing by Dean Karalekas

Kushan Empire | Connecting East & West

Gupta Dynasty | India's Golden Age

Mughals | Rise and Fall of an Empire


EASTERN CIVILIZATION | FINAL POSTER PROJECTS

ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUPS IN EAST AND SOUTH ASIA

PROJECT TYPE ACADEMIC POSTER PRESENTATION

Develop an academic poster using PowerPoint or other software which can incorporate text, maps, tables, and images.

PROJECT THEME | ANTHROPOLOGY, ETHNICITY, AND LANGUAGE IN EAST AND SOUTH ASIA

  1. Choose an anthropologist with deep experience in living among, or studying, an ethnolinguistic group in East or South Asia.
  2. Discuss the events or interests which led the anthropologist to study the ethnic group or culture.
  3. Emphasize the language, culture, history, and location of the ethnic group.
  4. Identify the significance of the ethnic group in terms of East Asian civilization.

POSTER SIZE | INTERNATIONAL A3

Set slide dimensions for international A3, landscape (297 x 420 mm) (11.7 x 16.5 in)

Ethnic Uyghurs greeting tourists at the Gaochang ruins near Turpan, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, 2001

Examples | Scheduled Tribes of India


A FEW PHOTOS FROM MY EASTERN TRAVELS

Hindu Culture - Agra India - Eastern Civilization - Steven A Martin - Study Abroad Journal

Hindu Culture | Agra, India

Dawenkuo, China | Archaeological Site

Buddhist Culture | Lhasa | Click to Tibet page

Kung Fu School - Shaolin Temple China - Dr Steven A Martin

Kung Fu School | Shaolin Temple, China

Islamic culture | Kashgar, Xinjiang | Click to Silk Road page

Chinese Opera | Taipei, Taiwan | Click to Taiwan page


ONLINE RESOURCES

Thank you for visiting Eastern Civilization Online.

If you feel motivated to know more about my courses or Learning Adventures, or would like to arrange for me to give a public talk, please let me know – I’d love to hear from you.

–Steven A. Martin

Monks in Xian, China, at the start of Silk Road | 1995

Surf Tourism Research & Publication

Surf Tourism Research & Publication

SURF TOURISM RESEARCH AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF SURFING SITES 

One of my favorite research areas is surf tourism, especially when addressing the conservation of coastal surfing resources. It has been a great way to bring together my personal experience in surfing, surf travel, managing an international surf school (1998-2003), and academic research and publication.

Celebrities from Bangkok try surfing for the first time in Phuket

My personal experience and research indicate that the world's surfing breaks are iconic locations worthy of protection for future generations. Surf sites are also significant economic engines for local communities with sustainability a key issue.

To address these problems, I developed the Surf Resource Sustainability Index (SRSI), a methodology aimed at measuring the conservation aptitude at surf sites. SRSI is a metric-orientated planning and development methodology – a theoretical compass which points toward sustainability, representing the summation of assessable qualities or attributes a site possesses which can make a positive contribution to sustainability.

NEWS | Surfers save the Eisbach River wave in downtown Munich, Germany

The Eisbach River Wave (Eisbachwelle) is one of the best and most consistent city-center river surfing spots in the world.

When local authorities planned to destroy the Eisbachwelle, local and international surfers responded with a public campaign and online petition to "save the wave"... Read more...

NEWS | Surfing the Eisbach River Wave | Munich, Germany


Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Management

Thesis Title: A Surf Resource Sustainability Index for Surf Site Conservation and Tourism Management

Abstract

Surf sites around the world are under ever-increasing pressures from tourism, coastal development, pollution and other anthropogenic factors, and this research introduces and illuminates surfing areas as integral natural resources. The dissertation develops a Surf Resource Sustainability Index (SRSI) and presents it through a series of three peer-reviewed journal papers. The SRSI is designed as a global model and framework of indicators and methods for the assessment of surf site conservation attributes. A systematic literature review of surf tourism research was used in conjunction with the author’s personal experience and discussion with experienced surfers and scholars to develop twenty-seven sustainability indicators. Framing them as social, economic, environmental and governance indices, the study defines the criteria, implications and applicability for each indicator in context. A progression of field studies was carried out in Phuket, Thailand, where an emerging surf tourism market segment is additive to the island’s bustling tourism economy and escalating coastal resource management issues. The SRSI has proven effective in assessing sites and pinpointing key areas of concern. SRSI metrics are particularly applicable to the cross-sectional evaluation of surf sites and serve as a direct method in the prioritization of sites for surfing reserve development. This research contributes to the fields of surf resource conservation and tourism management through the innovation and application of a new and pragmatic methodology.

Keywords: coastal management, conservation, sustainability indicators, surf resource sustainability index, surf tourism, Phuket, Thailand

My PhD process

My PhD was research-based and followed a standard protocol set forth by the Faculty of Environmental Management. I was required to prepare a qualifying exam, supplemental exam, thesis proposal, thesis defense, thesis poster, and three international journal publications.


Master of Business Administration in Hospitality and Tourism Management

Thesis Title: Coastal resource assessment for surf tourism in Thailand

Abstract

Framed as an exploratory research of Thailand’s physical environment, this study identifies and assesses the natural surfing resources of the Andaman Coast, including the sources, types and locations of waves in relationship to the regional and coastal topography. Underpinning the research is the collection and review of the literature on coastal resource management, surfing in Thailand, and the scholarly works pertaining to surf tourism. From a social science standpoint, personal interviews with Thai and foreign resident surfers, tourists, and members of local communities were carried out. The investigation locates a wide range of areas suitable for surf tourism and indicates that Thailand’s natural resources are somewhat limited and coupled with issues of water quality, ocean safety, regularity and quality of surfing waves, and the accessibility to remote coastal areas during the southwest monsoon. The study finds that surf tourism in Thailand is at a stage of infancy, has potential, and affords an opportunity to develop sustainably. The research advances the overall understanding of surfing in Thailand and offers a series of recommendations for the coastal resource management and conservation of surfing areas.

Keywords: surf tourism, coastal resource, coastal assessment, Andaman, Phuket, Thailand


Academic papers and publications

Martin, S. A. (2022). From shades of grey to Web of Science: A systematic review of surf tourism research in international journals (2011–2020). Journal of Sport & Tourism. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2022.2037453

Previous research outlined the genesis of a new body of surf tourism research based on a wide array of grey and published literature (Martin & Assenov, 2012). The aim of this paper is to further investigate the development of the field through an evidence-based informetric analysis of international journal articles listed in Web of Science or Scopus databases. Employing a systematic review of journal papers published from 2011 to 2020, the study addresses the previous grey literature problem of accessibility and eligibility criteria for citation. Findings are drawn from explicit and tangential studies which capture an up-to-date overview of the evolution of surf tourism research. The study identifies active journals, authors, field locations, and leading areas of research, suggesting that the field has entered a period of ‘academic professionalization’. A bibliography of 96 journal articles presents academics and readers with a corpus of accessible research.

Keywords: citation criteria; Scopus; surf tourism research; systematic review; Web of Science


Martin, S. A., & Ritchie, R. (2019). A social science index and conceptual framework for assigning weights in surf tourism planning and development.Tourism Planning and Development, 16(3) 281–303. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2018.1470999

This paper develops a social science weighting schema for surf tourism planning and sustainable development, eco-tourism, and conservation studies using surf tourism as a representative worked example. Assessment scores from a previously published surf resource sustainability field study of nine beaches in Phuket, Thailand, were weighted against data taken from surveys of expert scholars and surfers from a range of diverse backgrounds. The study measured levels of significance among weighted and unweighted means and bias ratio for 27 social, economic, environmental and governance indicators. Differences between scores and weighted scores were, in general, low, but this was not the case in key areas of concern, notably governance, and areas where poor governance had negative consequences, such as water quality. The findings indicate that analysis of weighted data helps identify key metrics. We show that analysis of weighted data provides insights not apparent from working on unweighted data. The procedures and weighting strategies employed in this research can be used for tourism planning and other related research activities which use interview data, such as research on, ecotourism, national park surveys, amateur fishing, snorkeling and reef tours. This study provides a conceptual framework for comparisons of different studies using similar protocols.

Keywords: conservation; surf resource sustainability index; surf tourism; Thailand; tourism planning; weights


Martin, S. A., & O'Brien, D. (2017). Part 2: A systems approach – Chapter 2. Surf resource system boundaries. In G. Borne and J. Ponting (Eds.), Sustainable surfing (pp. 23–38). Routledge: London.

Ch.2 (pp. 23–38) PDF

Read more...

Introduction

A ‘system boundary’ is a theoretical concept in environmental science representing the intersecting and interrelated human and physical elements in the natural world at a given site. This chapter develops a system boundary discussion on surf sites, recognizing ‘surf system boundaries’ as more than the beach and sea; they encompass numerous stakeholder interests and factors related to the scope of the ‘whole’ surf system as a sustainable and dynamic model. The following discussion serves to review and broaden the knowledge of surf system boundaries and provide clarity in two sets of dimensions: the physical boundaries of surf sites and the resource stakeholders.

Keywords: surf tourism; surf resource; system boundaries; environmental management

University News: Dr. Steven Andrew Martin Recognized for Social Science Research and Publication in Environmental Studies with a New Book Chapter on Surf Resource System Boundaries.


Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2015). Measuring the conservation aptitude of surf beaches in Phuket, Thailand: An application of the surf resource sustainability index. International Journal of Tourism Research, 17(2) 105–117. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1961

Abstract

The research seeks to measure the conservation aptitude of nine surf beaches in Phuket, Thailand by employing the Surf Resource Sustainability Index, an assessment methodology comprising 27 social, economic, environmental and governance indicators used to frame and quantify attributes for conservation development. The research identifies and documents key areas of concern for the sustainability of the island's coastal surfing resources and distinguishes steps forward to address emergent issues. The study finds that by improving the awareness, legislative status and management of surfing sites, the overall conservation aptitude for the island could be raised considerably.

Keywordssurf resource sustainability index; surf tourism; conservation; Phuket, Thailand


Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2014). Investigating the importance of surf resource sustainability indicators: Stakeholder perspectives for surf tourism planning and development. Tourism Planning and Development11(2) 127–148. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2013.864990

Abstract

The sustainability and conservation of coastal surfing resources have gained considerable attention in the twenty-first century. Scholars, graduate students, not-for-profit organizations, and commercial and governmental sectors have entered the surf tourism research field in order to better understand and manage surf sites. This research investigates the significance of 27 social, economic, environmental, and governance indicators outlined in the Surf Resource Sustainability Index, a contemporary methodology for measuring the conservation aptitude of surf sites. Twenty-one highly experienced surfers from diverse backgrounds were chosen for in-depth interviews based on their position as key stakeholders and for their practical experience, knowledge, and interaction with the resource. The study finds that surfers placed the highest importance for conservation aptitude on beach quality, water quality, legislative status, biodiversity, and history. Overall, environmental and governance indicators were slightly more significant than social indicators, and economic indicators were the least significant. Stakeholders' comments and corresponding ratings are listed for each indicator and provide insight to their perspectives and evaluations. The research contributes to surf tourism planning and development though the clarification of sustainability indicators and the discernment of indicator importance by surfers. A surf resource conservation action matrix is developed for future policy design and management.

Keywords: sustainability indicators; surf resource sustainability index; surf tourism; conservation aptitude


Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2014). Developing a surf resource sustainability index as a global model for surf beach conservation and tourism research. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(7) 760–792. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2013.806942

Abstract

The growth of surfing activities and surf tourism has gained significant attention in the academia during the past decade. This paper is aimed at developing a framework of indicators and methods used in assessing the sustainability factors of surf sites. The research puts forward a Surf Resource Sustainability Index (SRSI) as a conceptual model to study the sustainability of surf tourism sites. The literature review, previous experience, and discussion with veteran surfers and scholars were used to develop indicators and determine their measurability and aptitude. Index pilot testing was carried out in Phuket, Thailand, where an emerging surf culture and tourism market segment add to the island's bustling economy and coastal resource-management issues. The case study underpins the importance of social, economic, environmental, and governance factors in the conservation process. The SRSI metrics provide a direct method for assessing surf sites and offer tangible benefits to surfers and other stakeholders.

Keywords: surf tourismcoastal resourcessustainability indicatorsindexThailand


Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2012). The genesis of a new body of sport tourism literature: A systematic review of surf tourism research (1997-2011). Journal of Sport and Tourism, 17(4), 257–287. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2013.766528

Abstract

Surf tourism is a rapidly expanding market segment of the wider sport tourism industry and the purpose of this study is to provide an analytical interpretation of surf tourism research. Published and unpublished literature from 1997 through to 2011 was collected through searching a variety of academic databases and communicating directly with the authors themselves. A systematic review was employed to identify and analyze the types of research emerging from international journals, universities, governments, and the not-for-profit sector. The study indicates a genesis in sport tourism literature, representing a new and available body of surf tourism research. We find that this new area of research has arisen mainly from the grey literature through the works of graduate students and consultants. Surfing events, artificial surfing reefs, and the sustainability of surf sites and host communities are among the most prolific areas under discussion and key arguments include socioeconomics, coastal management, and sustainable tourism. Approximately 10% of countries in the world with coastal surfing resources have been studied, and this and other findings indicate the potential for new areas of research in domestic and international tourism. A bibliography provides 156 documentary materials compiled for the systematic review.

Keywords: surfingsurf tourismliterature reviewsustainabilitycoastal management


Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2011). Beach and coastal survey of Thailand: What future for surf tourism. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts, 3(1), 77–87.

Abstract

Surfing and surf tourism run parallel: they are focused upon location-specific destinations where natural resources and phenomena occur conducive to the sport, and traveling for the sake of surfing new places is as old as the sport itself. The research investigates the broad environment of Thailand through the survey and assessment of coastal resources in order to determine the plausibility of developing surf tourism in Thailand. The study also examines surf tourist characteristics in Phuket, Thailand, through unstructured and semi-structured personal interviews. The research identified five Thai provinces best suited for surf tourism and suggests that there are suitable locations for surfing and surf tourism, including those for advanced, intermediate, and beginner surfers. A Thailand-specific definition for surf tourism is put forward, reflecting the natural environment and the characteristics of current surf tourists. The paper identifies future prospects, challenges, and issues for developing sustainable surf tourism in Thailand.

Keywords: surf tourism; sustainable surfing; surf site assessment; Thailand


Global Surf Cities Conference, Surfer's Paradise, Australia

In 2013, I was invited to give several talks to the international surfing community at the Global Surf Cities Conference in Australia. I was asked to present research on the Surf Resource Sustainability Index (SRSI) and the surf tourism industry in Phuket, Thailand. Please click the buttons below to view or share these presentations.


National and International Surfing Reserves

Surf tourism is a new and dynamic area of research, with most studies targeting the economics and sustainable management of coastal resources, including stakeholder perspectives, conservation, water quality and biodiversity of marine organisms (Martin & Assenov, 2012).

Brad Farmer, a leading advocate for the "Conservation of oceans, waves and beaches, and the salty communities who share them," and global chair of the non-profit organization National Surfing Reserves (NSR), met with me in Phuket to discuss my research and the protection of surf sites in Thailand for future generations (Phuket Gazette, 2011).

Conservation Leadership

Farmer is an outstanding example of personal commitment and proactive engagement in surf site conservation. He developed the Surfing Reserve program in order to recognize surf sites as "Iconic places of intrinsic environmental, heritage, sporting and cultural value, and to embrace all peoples to enjoy, understand and protect special coastal environments of universal value to the surfing world" (NSR, 2017). Farmer maintains the core values of conservation: "A Surfing Reserve does not attempt to exclude any user group."

For more information, please surf to these websites:

NSR – National Surfing Reserves

WSR – World Surfing Reserves


Nalu Longboarder's Magazine (Japan) – Surf Tourism Research in Phuket

In 2008, Japanese surf magazine "Nalu" came to Phuket to write a story featuring the island's waves and my surf tourism research. The article, written by Riku Emoto and photographed by Yasuma Miura, was centered on the concept of a surfer conducting research on surfing for an academic degree (published in Japanese).


Conferences and Proceedings

In recent years, I have been active in presenting surf tourism research at conferences and raising awareness of the value and significance of surfing as a coastal resource.

At the 18th Asia Pacific Tourism Association Annual Conference (APTA) in 2012, "Towards a surf resource sustainability index: A global model for surf site conservation and Thailand case study" won the Best Paper Award (Green Aspect on Tourism Development Research), selected out of 171 papers.

Martin, S. A. (2009). Rethinking the monsoon: Sustainable surf tourism in Thailand. Paper presented at the International Tourism Conference on Sustainable Hospitality and Tourism Management: Beyond the Global Recession. Silpakon University, Bangkok, Thailand, May 14–15.

Martin, S. A. (2010). The conservation of coastal surfing resources in Thailand: The Andaman Sea. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Environment and Natural Resources (ICENR) 2010  The Changing Environment: Challenges for Society (pp. 262–280), Mahidol University, Salaya Campus, Bangkok, Thailand, November 10–12.

Martin, S. A. (2013). Surf tourism and resource sustainability in Phuket, Thailand. Scholarly presentation [PowerPoint]. Global Surf Cities Conference: Destination Innovation Collaboration, Kirra Hill Community and Cultural Centre, Gold Coast, QLD, February 28 – March 1. Gold Coast: Gold Coast Surf City, Inc.

Martin, S. A. (2013). The surf resource sustainability index and Thailand case trial. Scholarly presentation [PowerPoint]. Global Surf Cities Conference: Destination Innovation Collaboration, Kirra Hill Community and Cultural Centre, Gold Coast, QLD, February 28 – March 1. Gold Coast: Gold Coast Surf City, Inc.

Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2008). Beach and coastal survey: What future for surf tourism. CD Proceedings of the 7th Asia Pacific Forum for Graduate Students’ Research in Tourism – Advances in Tourism Practices: Pointing the Way Forward (p. 12). University Teknologi Mara, Selangor, Malaysia, June 3–5.

Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2008). Interdisciplinary approaches toward sustainable surf tourism in Thailand. Paper presented at the 1st PSU Sustainability Conference. Prince of Songkla University, Phuket Campus, Thailand, November 19–21.

Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2011). A statistical analysis of surf tourism research literatureCD Proceedings of the 4th Annual PSU Research Conference: Multidisciplinary Studies on Sustainable Development (p. 57). Prince of Songkla University, Phuket, Thailand, November 16–18.

Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2012). Measuring the importance of social, economic, environmental and governance indicators for the surf resource sustainability index. Proceedings of the 1st Annual PSU Phuket International Conference: Multidisciplinary Studies on Sustainable Development (p. 51). Prince of Songkla University, Phuket, Thailand, January 10–12, 2013.

Martin, S. A., & Assenov, I. (2012). Towards a surf resource sustainability index: A global model for surf site conservation and Thailand case studyProceedings of the 18th Asia Pacific Tourism Association Annual Conference (APTA) Hospitality & Tourism Education: New Tourism & New Waves (pp. 745–760). Taipei, ROC, June 26–29. Busan, Korea: School of International Tourism, Dong-A University. [+ best paper award]

Martin, S. A., Assenov, I., & Ritchie, R. (2014). Towards a social science index and conceptual framework for assigning weights in sustainability research. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual PSU Phuket International Conference: Multidisciplinary Studies on Sustainable Development (p. 70). Prince of Songkla University, Phuket, Thailand, November 13–14. [+ best paper award]

Thank you for visiting my Surf Tourism Research Page.

I hope you enjoy the information in the links provided. If you feel motivated to learn more about surf tourism or the environmental management of surf sites, or would like to arrange a public talk, please let me know – I’d love to hear from you.

–Steven 'Surf Doctor' Martin

Ethnohistorical Research & Publication

Ethnohistorical Research & Publication

AMONG THE HEADHUNTERS OF LAIPUNUK  內本鹿  LAST REFUGE OF THE TAIWAN ABORIGINES

Rare 1932 photo of a young Bunun couple in Laipunuk 內本鹿 Nei Ben Lu, Taiwan

How it began

In 2003, I met David Blundell, an anthropologist who studied aesthetic and visual anthropology at UCLA and was teaching a course at National Chengchi University (NCCU) in Taiwan. The course was called Culture and Ethnic Structure of Taiwan, and several students were making a film for their class project. David and the students invited me to learn more about the course and the film project, which focused on the Bunun, an indigenous ethnolinguistic group.

The film is named Rendezvouz with the Moon.

One night, I received a phone call from Tommie Williamson (1955-2017) (see my Taiwan Studies page), a producer from the US who I had met from one of the students in the class. Tommie explained that he was planning to videotape the original stories of a particular Bunun family who had once lived in a remote jungle valley, high in the mountains of southern Taiwan.

They were among the last headhunters of the Formosan Aborigines.

Interview set up | Bunun Educational and Cultural Foundation in Taitung, Taiwan | Tommie Williamson (1955-2017), left, and Langus and Nabu Istanda, right

My first film project

Before long, I was making films with Tommie, conducting ethnographic research, and writing my MA thesis. In 2004, I made a short, six-minute film about the research for my history class project, which I named In Our Hearts and Minds (posted here and on the University Filmworks YouTube Channel).

In 2006, I earned my Master's of Arts in Taiwan Studies (currently Asia-Pacific Studies) based on the video tape recordings and their translation to English.

2004 | In Our Hearts and Minds | Taiwan Studies

Cornerstone webpages and photos

  • Taiwan Studies | webpage
  • Ethnographic Film | webpage
  • Ethnohistorical Research | webpage
  • 2005 Bunun youth program | photos
  • 2006 Laipunuk expedition | photos
  • 2017 Shung-Ye Museum (Book Chapter) | webpage
  • 2020 Tama Biung ethnography (Publication) | webpage
  • 2021 Neibenlu Incident ethnohistory (Publication) | webpage

The Bunun and Laipunuk

Tama Biung Istanda (1917-2007) Bunun Culture, Taiwan | Key Informant for the Laipunuk 內本鹿 Nei Ben Lu Ethnographic Research Project

The Bunun are one of the 16 indigenous groups recognized by the Taiwan government and have a rich history of living in the high-mountains.

The mountainous region of Laipunuk, pronounced Nei Ben Lu (內本鹿) in Chinese, was once a group of Bunun villages, and was among the last frontier areas to be annexed into Imperial Japan in Taiwan (see Maps below).

The remoteness of the region, coupled with the late arrival of Japanese forces, afforded the Bunun children of that time to have a traditional lifestyle and observe their indigenous way of life.

To learn more about this story, please visit my Taiwan Learning Adventure page.

Interview with Tama Biung Istanda 1917-2007 | Bunun Educational and Cultural Foundation | Taitung, Taiwan

The region of Laipunuk 內本鹿 Taiwan | Among the last frontier areas to be annexed into Imperial Japan © Steven Martin

Laipunuk 內本鹿 Map showing the Japanese trail and police stations, and our 2006 cross-island expedition © Steven Martin


2006 Master of Arts in Taiwan Studies

In 2006, I earned my Master of Arts in Taiwan Studies, from National Chengchi University 國立政治大學 (NCCU). The research was based mainly on the translation of my ethnographic films from the Bunun language to English, and the interpretation of meaning and content. The abstract and full thesis are available below for English readers.

Thesis Title: Ethnohistorical Perspectives of the Bunun: A Case Study of Laipunuk, Taiwan [ 台灣原住民之民族史觀 : 以布農族內本鹿為例 ]

National Chengchi University (NCCU) | Institutional Repository | Author: Steven Andrew Martin  石倜文

Field research in Laipunuk during the 2005 expedition

Abstract

This thesis is a compilation of ethnographic narrative and ethnohistorical research in the form of a case study of the Bunun people of the Laipunuk geographic region of Taiwan. The research encompasses the life experiences of three members of the Istanda family, with cross verification of narrative history from extant documentation where possible. Informants were videotaped, audio taped, and where not possible, extensive and detailed notes were taken. Some informants also served as translators for others; one particularly valuable source is conversant in the Bunun language, Japanese, Chinese, and English, providing invaluable material and insight. This report begins with an overview of indigenous peoples, their prehistory, and their relationship with the greater Austronesian culture. This is followed by a brief survey of each indigenous culture’s social organization, with emphasis on the Bunun. Included is a political survey of major transformational and developmental periods in Taiwan’s history, beginning with the Dutch East India Company period, and ending with the modern Democratic Reform period. I have concluded, based on my extensive work with these indigenous peoples and my examination of available historical documentation, that Taiwan’s indigenous people have endured constant pressure from external forces and, as a direct result, have undergone acute social and cultural degradation from the loss of their native homelands. Nevertheless, vast knowledge is still available from elderly informants born into a relatively pristine Bunun culture. This knowledge contributes to the field of Taiwan Studies by providing an objective survey across the history of Taiwan’s indigenous peoples, offering a view through a previously closed window into the richness of Taiwan’s full history. It is recommended that such studies continue and expand.

Keywords: Bunun, Laipunuk, Austronesian, Taiwan, ethnohistorical, indigenous


2011 International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies | The Last Frontier of the Taiwan Aborigines

In 2011, I published a section of my MA thesis in the International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies (IJAPS), featuring the oral history of one of my informants, 84-year-old Langus Istanda. Born in 1926, Langus remembers the arrival of the Japanese police and experienced the forced extradition of her family from their region. Her childhood memories include stories of games, adventures, a safe and comfortable environment, and a sense of wonder for the modernity of the Japanese culture. She remembers the forced relocations and the period of illness and death of friends and relatives.

Below, I have provided a reference for the journal, an abstract, and a sample video tape used in developing the paper.

Martin, S. A. (2011). Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu)—The last frontier of the Taiwan aborigines during the Japanese occupation on Taiwan: Ethnographic narratives of a Bunun elderThe International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies (IJAPS), 7(1) 123–142.

Oral history of Langus Istanda | Ethnographic narrative

Abstract

The Bunun are one of the indigenous groups of Taiwan that have a rich history of living in the high-mountains. The region of Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu) was once a group of mountain villages and among the last frontier areas to be annexed into Imperial Japan in Taiwan. The remoteness of the region, coupled with the late arrival of Japanese forces, afforded the Bunun children of that time to have a lifestyle, where they participated in and observed their indigenous way of life. This research is an oral ethnography of Langus Istanda, born in 1920, remembering firsthand the arrival of the Japanese police and experienced the forced extradition of her family from their region. The research finds that the informant’s childhood memories are generally positive, inasmuch as she tells stories of games, adventures, a safe and comfortable environment, and a sense of wonder for the modernity of the Japanese culture; yet her memories move to a negative tone regarding the forced relocations and the period of illness and death of friends and relatives. The research indicates that the Laipunuk Bunun have endured constant pressure from external forces and, as a direct result, have undergone acute social, cultural, and linguistic degradation from the loss of their native homelands. This study contributes to an understanding of the value of cultural resource management by providing an objective and comprehensive record for future generations; it opens a pathway to Laipunuk and Bunun epistemology in the English language. Ultimately, the study proved to be mutually beneficial to both researcher and participant, offering extensive source of information as well as a sense of reconciliation to the Bunun elders; it represents the resilience of Bunun heritage.

Keywords: Laipunuk, Bunun, Taiwan, Central Range, heritage, indigenous, oral ethnography


2011 Journal of International Studies | Rebuilding A Bunun House

Martin, S. A. (2011). Rebuilding mama’s house—An ethnohistorical reconstruction and homecoming of the Bunun on Taiwan. Journal of International Studies1(2) 61–78. Phuket, Thailand: Faculty of International Studies, Prince of Songkla University.

In 2011, I developed a section of my MA thesis for publication in the Journal of International Studies. Ethnohistorical methods served to conceptually reconstruct an abandoned Bunun house located in the remote mountains of southern Taiwan. The house was reconstructed in 2008 based on my 2005-2006 videotaped oral history of three informants, a 19-day expedition to the house site (see videos at the bottom of this page), and the development of drawing and architectural design videos.

Below, I have provided a some background and materials employed in the research.

2006 Takivahlas Bunun House Site | 1,365 meters above sea level

1. Original kalabatune bark house

2. Tagnas reeds reconstruction

3. Slate house reconstruction with window

Mama's Laipunuk house floor plan based on site visit and interviews

Abstract

This study is the ethnography of three members of an indigenous Bunun family on Taiwan. In 1941, during the Japanese occupation era, the family was forced to abandon their home. The research moved to conceptually reconstruct their domicile through in-depth interviews followed by a 19-day mountaineering expedition to the remote village of Takivahlas in the Laipunuk region. The research reveals four stages of indigenous adaptation and reconstruction over time as access to knowledge and new resources became available. Ultimately, the study pinpoints the severity and outcome of foreign cultural incursion and sheds light on the cultural revival and homecoming of the Bunun with the house as a point of contact with the past; it serves to reconcile the past with the present to produce a lasting story and insight to Bunun epistemology and heritage for English readers.

Keywords: Taiwan aborigines, Austronesian, Bunun, Laipunuk, Ethnohistorical

Ethnohistorical house reconstruction 1

Ethnohistorical house reconstruction 2

Mama's house reconstructed in 2008 based on the research

Biung Istanda (1917–2007)

Langus Istanda (1926 – 2015)

Nabu Istanda (1964 – )


2017 Book Chapter

Cultural continuum among the Bunun of Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu), southern Taiwan (Ch. 8)

Martin, S. A., & Blundell, D. (2017). Cultural continuum among the Bunun of Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu), southern Taiwan (Ch. 8) (pp. 215–246). In H. Chang and A. Mona [C. Tsai] (Eds.), Religion, law and state: Cultural re-invigoration in the new age. Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines and SMC: Taipei.

Abstract

Over the past century, the Bunun people, an Austronesian-speaking indigenous culture of Taiwan, have withstood acute marginalization resulting from outside incursion, particularly from the Japanese (1895–1945) and the Nationalist Government (since 1945). However, in recent years democratic reforms ushered in opportunities for cultural conservation and new sustainability through cultural resource management. This research is focused on a particular group of Is-bukun Bunun speakers from the high-mountain villages of Laipunuk, Yen-Ping Township, Taitung County, Southern Taiwan. It seeks to identify aspects of intersystem cultural continuum amidst acute social change induced by external pressures. The research employed the translation of rare Chinese documents and interpretation by scholars in the discipline, the recordation of oral history through video and audio devices, by in-depth interview, and through participant observation. The study found that the Bunun have demonstrated profound cultural resilience in the contexts of ritual dance, marriage, hunting, religion, and the identification of place. Cultural traditions and behaviors were often modified and adapted to fit within the cultural norms and expectations of dominant cultures, yet deep intrinsic meanings were carried forward, crossing spiritual and generational gaps. The research offers a window to Bunun epistemology and cultural systematics, exploring how indigenous peoples perpetuate their beliefs and values through internal cultural transformation; it serves to document the home-grown cultural resource management of a Taiwanese human treasure for English readers.

Keywords: Southern Taiwan, Bunun, Laipunuk, Formosan indigenous, Bunun Cultural and Educational Foundation, historical cultural continuum


2022 Journal of Ethnography (Sage)

A Taiwan knowledge keeper of indigenous Bunun – An ethnographic historical narrative of Laipunuk (內本鹿), southern mountain range

Martin, S. A. (2020). A Taiwan knowledge keeper of indigenous Bunun – An ethnographic historical narrative of Laipunuk (內本鹿), southern mountain range. Ethnography, 23(2) 153–180. doi.org/10.1177/1466138120937037

Abstract

This paper offers an ethnographic life history account of a Bunun hunter, Tama Biung Istanda, from Laipunuk, Taiwan, based on academic research and fieldwork. Audio-visual tapes recorded by the author in Taitung County, Taiwan, were reviewed and translated alongside extant Chinese, Japanese and English sources. The study constructs a remembered life into readable coherent sequences on behalf of an indigenous peoples, many of whom now seek international recognition as part of their struggle for essential entitlements such as land rights, access to traditional hunting grounds, and other natural, legal, and cultural resources. The testimony of Tama Biung Istanda, translated into English and summarised here for future generations, provides a compelling new source of data on the Bunun heritage that can help to assist knowledge for the local and scholarly community and cultural resource management practices.

Keywords: Bunun, ethnohistory, hunting, Japanese Colony of Taiwan, Laipunuk or Neibenlu (內本鹿), Taiwanese (Formosan) indigenous peoples


2022 Journal of Nationalism and Ethnic Politics

The last refuge and forced migration of a Taiwanese indigenous people during the Japanese colonization of Taiwan – An ethnohistory

Martin, S. A., & Blundell, D. (2022). The last refuge and forced migration of a Taiwanese indigenous people during the Japanese colonization of Taiwan – An ethnohistory. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics28(2) 206–231. doi.org/10.1080/13537113.2021.2011545.

Abstract

Through ethnohistorical studies, this paper explores social and political perspectives during the Japanese colonization of Taiwan which led to the forced resettlement of an entire indigenous society. Ethnographic life histories and translations of official Japanese police announcements are used to explore the 1941 Neibenlu (Laipunuk) Incident (內本鹿事件), a critical event in the oral history of the Bunun, a Taiwanese (Formosan) indigenous people of the southern mountains of Taiwan. We examine the reopening of Neibenlu’s Japanese mountain trail and its police stations offering new access to Bunun heritage to inform present and future generations. The study offers an innovative account of a neglected topic of indigenous resistance to imperialism, combining oral ethnography, and historical textual analysis.

Keywords: Bunun; forced migration; Japanese colonization of Taiwan; Laipunuk; Neibenlu (內本鹿); Taiwanese (Formosan) indigenous peoples


DVD | Indigenous Music of Taiwan

In 2005, as part of my coursework in Taiwan Studies, I made several films on the musical traditions of the Bunun based on audio-visual recordings made at the Bunun Cultural and Educational Foundation in Taidong, Taiwan.

Overview

As European powers contacted and influenced ethnolinguistic Austronesian-speaking groups in Southeast Asia, vocal folk songs were influenced by percussion instruments. In contrast, Taiwan aborigines held on to acappella traditions, and vocal music retained rich and complicated style and content.

Acappella styles range from the most primitive to the most complicated of all modern vocal music. With songs for nearly every occasion of life, content includes those for religious ceremonies, worship, nature, work and recreation.

Indigenous Music of Taiwan | Part 1

Indigenous Music of Taiwan | Part 2

Synopsis of the film

The Introduction is a newly created song for the kids to sing on the Bunun Buluo stage. The music was composed by Daganau, from the Paiwan and Rukai ethnic groups, and illustrates a variety of cultural influences. It is intended to be song by the younger generation, capturing the spirit of today’s young indigenous people and inspiring them to come together in harmony. The lyrics is Chinese and includes: “Come everyone sing… Join us to sing… May this never change… Black and white come together – no matter where you’re from – Taidong, Kaosiung… Think globally and act locally…”

Macilumaha. A newly created piece for the Bunun Buluo show. The very beginning of the song may be rooted in the Bunun tradition to call ahead to the village when returning from the hunt or from time away. In such case, the voice should be that of a familiar member of the village and signal that there is no reason for alarm.

Pasibutbut. Often called the "Harvest Prayer Song," it expresses hope for the millet to grow and provide a bountiful harvest. It features an 8-tone harmony in the chromatic style unique in the entire world. Good harmony is important for a good harvest. Today this song has evolved to represent good harmony for good luck. Gathered in a circle and holding hands, the group’s movement is counter-clockwise. According to one version of Bunun oral history, a long time ago a hunter went to the mountains and after hearing the sound of honey bees, he brought this sound home to his family group or clan.

Pisilaiya. Traditional hunting song. The music features the shaking of the reeds and is usually sung before the hunt. The music is used to worship the animal's spirits and calls them to come. The lyrics include… "May the cooked meat come to our basket…" and the performer calls the name of animals, such as goat, bear, deer, and flying squirrel.

Malastabang. Traditional Bunun announcement song or the “Report of events”. This ritual was originally used to announce the triumph or details of headhunting, as if a forum for bragging rights. During the Japanese period, when headhunting was outlawed, the significance changed to focus only on the events of hunting animals, such as how, when, where, or how many animals were killed. During the Kuomintang period, hunting was outlawed and the song fell into decline. Today, the Bunun are allowed to return to various mountain areas, and the ritual has evolved to report the events of exploring ancestral villages and tribal mapping.

Featured in this video, a young man announces which village he has actually returned to in recent years. Before drinking from the gourd, three drops of millet wine are sprinkled as an offering to heaven, earth, and spirit. The report is traditionally done by men, and when announcements or actions are favorable, his wife will enter the circle and dance to show her support.

Malastabang is also a method of identification when clans came together, revealing who you are, where you’re from, and serves as an indication of eligibility for marriage. For example, the performer states: “Taki-Luvun” meaning his mother’s clan came from "Luvun".

I was fortunate to have the experience of participating in several expeditions to Laipunuk with friends from the Bunun Cultural and Educational Foundation, also known as the Bunun Village or Bunun Buluo. The videos below were taken in 2006, when our party crossed the Central Range of Taiwan from west to east during a 19-day expedition (view map).

Clip 00:21 | Crossing a stream near Shou, Laipunuk (內本鹿)

Clip 00:19 | Crossing a landslide near Madaipulan, Laipunuk (內本鹿)

Expedition Video | 07:31 | Laipunuk 內本鹿 2006 | Takivhalas, Laipunuk, to Ten Thousand Mountain God Lake, Central Range

Thank you for visiting my Ethnographic Research page.

I hope you enjoy the photos and the information in the links provided. If you feel motivated to learn more about my experience in ethnographic film or Taiwan Studies, or would like to arrange for me to give a public presentation, please let me know – I’d love to hear from you.

–Steven Martin

Cornerstone webpages and photos

  • Taiwan Studies | webpage
  • Ethnographic Film | webpage
  • Ethnohistorical Research | webpage
  • 2005 Bunun youth program | photos
  • 2006 Laipunuk expedition | photos
  • 2017 Shung-Ye Museum (Book Chapter) | webpage
  • 2020 Tama Biung ethnography (Publication) | webpage
  • 2021 Neibenlu Incident ethnohistory (Publication) | webpage

Bibliography | Papers and proceedings

Martin, S. A., & Blundell, D. (2022). The last refuge and forced migration of a Taiwanese indigenous people during the Japanese colonization of Taiwan – An ethnohistory. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 28(2) 206–231doi.org/10.1080/13537113.2021.2011545.

Martin, S. A. (2022). A Taiwan knowledge keeper of indigenous Bunun – An ethnographic historical narrative of Laipunuk (內本鹿), southern mountain range. Ethnography, 23(2)153–180doi.org/10.1177/1466138120937037

Martin, S. A., & Blundell, D. (2017). Cultural continuum among the Bunun of Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu), southern Taiwan (pp. 215–246) (Chapter 8). In H. Chang and A. Mona [C. Tsai] (Eds.), Religion, law and state: Cultural re-invigoration in the new age. Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines and SMC: Taipei.

Martin, S. A., & Blundell, D. (2014). A new trial for the journey home to the Bunun villages of old Laipunuk, Taiwan: Contextualizing island Formosa through cultural heritage, digital mapping, and museologyProceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Formosan Indigenous peoples: Contemporary Perspectives (p. 89). Taipei, Taiwan, ROC, September 15–17.

Martin, S. A. (2011). Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu)—The last frontier of the Taiwan aborigines during the Japanese occupation on Taiwan: Ethnographic narratives of a Bunun elder. The International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies (IJAPS), 7(1) 123–142.

Martin, S. A. (2011). Rebuilding mama’s house—An ethnohistorical reconstruction and homecoming of the Bunun on Taiwan. Journal of International Studies1(2) 61–78.

Martin, S. A. (2010). Laipunuk (Nei Ben Lu)—The last frontier of the Bunun during the Japanese occupation on Taiwan: Ethnographic narratives of an Isbukun elder. Scholarly presentation [PowerPoint]. 3rd Annual PSU Phuket Conference: Multidisciplinary Studies on Sustainable Development. Nov. 17–19. Prince of Songkla University, Phuket, Thailand.